Top Interview Questions and Answers

Top Interview Questions and Answers
Interview Sortout

Recent Posts

How the New Education Policy(NEP) is Going to Help in Future

By Dhananjay → July 21, 2021

What is the National Education Policy (NEP)?

The education sector is responsible for creating capable candidates who possess the ability to change the world and transform it for the better. The government comes up with new policies to im[prove the education sector. 

These policies provide a comprehensive framework for all institutions to follow. The need for these policies arose way back in the year 1968. These policies have been revised many times in the years. The first revision was in 1986. And the policies were then updated and revised in 1992. 

These policies were updated as per the need of the hour. Since then, the sector has seen many changes. The need for revision arose this year too. To match up with the changing world the government decided to update the policies. And make them more relevant and compelling for the education system of the country. 

Overview of National Education Policy (NEP)

The aim of these new policies introduced by the government is to formalize changes in the system from K-12 to university level. To focus better on the key concepts, ideas, applications, and problem-solving angles. 

Some new learning methods are introduced. Some innovative policies are introduced to focus primarily on secondary-level education. Let’s look at the policies.

National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) to develop National Curricular and Pedagogical Framework

National Curricular and Pedagogical Framework is a new change that will be developed by NCERT. This is for early care and education for children who are up to the age of 8. 

Introduction of coding from class 6

Scientific temper and mathematical thinking will now be a part of the school curriculum. Students can also take up coding from grade 6th. 

Board exams

After the implementation of this policy, the board exams will now be conducted in two parts. The two parts are objective and descriptive. These exams are specifically designed to improve the learning of the students, understanding of concepts, and promotion of knowledge. 

Instead of just memorizing. We can now see board exams be conducted in viable models like annual/semester/modular.

No separation of streams

After the implementation of this policy, there will be no hard separation on the basis of streams like science/commerce/humanities. There will also be no separation between co-curricular and extra-curricular areas. 

All the subjects will be the same for all students. And subjects like arts, music, yoga, sports, etc. will be a part of the curriculum.

The New Education Policy of 2020 will focus on creating a holistic and application-based system for the students. This is expected to pay special attention to skill development and making the students ready for the future. 

Main Focus of the New Education Policy

Focus on higher education 

A lot of reforms and new developments have been introduced by NEP that will benefit the higher education sector. These are some of the important policies introduced that will benefit the higher education sector. 

The single regulatory body for higher education 

The New Policy will now establish a Higher Education Commission of India. This will be a single regulatory body for all the education sectors in the country except for legal and medical education. 

Multiple entries and exit program

For the student who had to leave the course in the middle. Now there will be multiple entries and exit options. Their credits will be transferred via the Academic Bank of Credits. 

Adult learning programs through tech-based options and TV channels

This policy aims to bring quality technology options for adults learning. This will be achieved through apps, online courses, and modules, satellite-based TV channels, online books, the introduction of online libraries, and adult education centers. 

Availability of e-courses in regional languages

From now, technology will be used to educate students. It will be incorporated in all the modules like planning, teaching, learning, assessment, school, student training, etc. The content will also be available in regional languages for the benefit of the students. 

Foreign universities can set up their campus in the country

The top 100 universities of the world will be facilitated to operate in India under this new policy. These universities will be given special dispensation regarding regulatory, governance, and control norms. These factors will be on par with the autonomous institutions of the country. 

A common entrance exam for all colleges

All the higher institutes of the countries will now have a common entrance exam. That will be held by the National Testing Agency. 

What To expect from New Education Policy

This new policy is expected to bring positive change in the education sector of the country. This will have a long-lasting impact on the education system. Since the foreign universities are now allowed to set up their campus in the country. 

This initiative by the government encourages the students to complete their higher education in the country. The students can now experience global quality education and have a chance to reach the global bar without leaving the country. 

The introduction of multidisciplinary institutes will lead to a better focus on every field like arts and humanities. This will help the students to learn and grow. This new policy will enable students to focus on knowledge and learn instead of just memorizing.

The single common entrance exam is also a positive step taken by the government. It will reduce the stress of students. Also, eliminating the need of taking multiple competitive exams to take admission. 

It will ease the pressure on the students. It will also level the field for the various candidates appearing in the exams. The Academic Bank of Credit is a positive initiative to store the academic credits of the students. T

his will enable the students to earn points by completing a course and by completing higher education. The points the students will earn will be credited to the account. And the students can transfer their credits if they wish to switch colleges or universities. 

This also makes it easier for students to resume their studies if they had to drop out for some reason. This will not affect their score, and they can pick up from where they left.

The next steps

The new policy is focusing on increasing the gross enrollment ratio in the higher education system. This ratio is expected to rise. This ratio currently sits somewhere around 26%, a lot less when compared to other countries like North America, China, Brazil, etc. 

The introduction of stronger policies is needed to strengthen the education system of the country. 

Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and opening up  External Commercial Borrowing (ECB) can strengthen the capital pool of the government. 

The country needs a greater inflow of finance. This will help in attracting talented teachers, build better infrastructure, and take measures that will enable sourcing FDI and ECB.

This New Education Policy is a step in the right direction. But everything lies in the implementation of the policy. We just have to wait and see how this policy will benefit the students and the education system in real-time. 

Hopefully, the policy will bring a positive change, and students might reap benefits from the new and improved education system in the future. 

How To Make A Career Choice?

By Dhananjay →

Although some of us know exactly which career path we are gonna take, others may not be aware of what they want. Most people don’t have any specific career paths from a young age, and for them, choosing the right career is slightly more complex. For them choosing the ideal career path from the sheer number of choices can be a bit overwhelming. 

When selecting a path after completing studies, the burden of the wrong choice can get even heavier. The variety of options can confuse even the brightest minds. All these options serve as both a benefit and a hindrance. Students can make a career in any field of their choice, but identifying the best career choice and taking the first step requires some research and help. In this guide, we will look at some tips that you can use to choose the ideal career path. 

Conduct A Self-Assessment

The first step of choosing the right career is by understanding your interest, skills, and ambitions. Yes, there are plenty of options out there, but you should only shortlist ones that you are interested in. establish your interests and skills, and this will allow you to gain some clarity by making a list of your abilities and desires. 

If you are confused, you can get in touch with your friends or classmates to help you identify your capacities. These people can give you some insights into your skills and capabilities that you might not know. 

When asking your friends to analyze, you shouldn’t lose confidence if they mention some of your weaknesses. Knowing your pitfalls will help you steer clear of the career field that requires any of that particular skill or tarot. 

You can start this quest of self-identification by asking yourself some questions like:

  • Do you love working in a team, or do you prefer to work alone?

  • How do you like to work, or if you have a specific working style?

  • Would you like a career behind the screen or somewhere you can deal with the public?

These questions will enable you to shortlist industries and streams and ultimately get you closer to your ideal career path. While making a career choice, don’t forget to take your interest into consideration. You can make a choice directly from your interests. If your interest drives you enough, then you can take it up a notch and make it your full-time career. 

Your interests play the primary role in the type of jobs you should choose. If you just get a job that you are not really interested in, over time it can leave you unfulfilled and you may end up quitting. So, try to be honest with yourself, and accept your interest without forcing yourself into a box. 

Another integral determinant while selecting a career is your goals. Honestly, ask yourself about your long-term and short-term goals and make a decision depending on the answers. 

Your career goals will have a lasting impression on your career choice. So, assess your goals and what drives you. Maybe you want to earn the top position, get to a senior management post, make a change in society, or simply just want a good salary. 

Carefully assess your interest and your goals, and you will be able to shortlist industries or sectors that you can work in. This is the first step in choosing the right career, and it is the foundation of all the next steps to come. Try to stay true to yourself, and eventually, you will make a career that will fulfill you and take you to new heights. 

Match Potential Career Paths

Once you have listed down your interests and skills, it is now time to match them with potential career paths. When you have considered everything from your interests and goals, the rest of the way gets so much easier. 

Have a look at the available options, and you can consult other people as well. They might be able to see the patterns and connect the dots that you might not. After you have shortlisted a few items, you can start looking through job boards. 

Several companies post new vacancies and job listings online. Apply for the ones that resonate well with your interests and goals. If you are still feeling confused, you can look at the career options by typing in the keywords. This will allow you to review the job profile and what the companies are looking for. 

When you are unsure of how to choose between certain careers, you can take the help of some online tools that are designed to assist you in your quest. These quizzes and career tests will assess your skills and recommend some career paths that you can choose from. 

Seeking out career counselors can also be a helpful factor in making the career choice. You can also visit recruitment agencies to help you through this choice. Since they are professionals, they can offer you some insights and a unique perspective that was missing. 

When you are matching your skills or interest with a career path sometimes you may not see a direct connection. However, there are certain educational courses that can help you bridge the gap between you and your ultimate career. 

You can also use a different approach, start by assessing which educational courses or training paths match your interests and skills. Go forward with these training courses, and once completed, you can look at the career paths that match your educational degrees. 

Narrow Down The Options

Now that you have shortlisted your career paths, it is time to get more specific. You can’t go on to work in all the shortlisted industries and decide which works the best. Hence you will need to spend a little more time making the perfect career choice

Since you have shortlisted quite a few options, this means now you can go to specific research. Start by spelling with people who are currently working in that field, and work on a pros and cons list for each shortlisted option. 

You can use online forums or LinkedIn to connect with these people and ask them about their respective jobs. These professionals have been in the industry for a long time, and they can shed some light on the subject, which will help you decide better. 

The professional staff will familiarize you with what skills are needed for the job, how it is like working in the industry, or if there is better growth potential. These factors will help you gain a better understanding of actual work, and enable you to compare several other career options. 

Compare the good and bad aspects of every career option you have shortlisted. If the benefits of a career outweigh the obstacles associated with it, then you should take it. However, if the obstacles and working conditions of a field are difficult then, we recommend moving on to the next choice. 

You should narrow down the list of career options depending on all the variables that are important for you. If you have confusion between two choices, keeping your options open will be beneficial in the long run. If there is a career that appeals to you more than the others then, you should put your focus on it. 

The interest, time, and dedication will keep you motivated, and your chances of making it into the specific field will be bright. Once you have finally made the career choice, it is now time to bring them into reality. 

Make A Plan Of Action

This is the final step in choosing a career path. After deciding the field, it is now time to look at the steps you need to take if you wish to make your career in it. In the final step, you will decide your long-term and short-term career goals. And work for where you ultimately want to be. 

Your short-term career goals should be specific without being too laid-back, set a specific timeline, and work on other essential stuff like your CV, your skills, qualifications, etc. You should look at what this career demands. If you need to complete a specific course or send an application, or anything else. Get all things in order, and move forward towards applying for a job. 

While choosing a career, it is good to be ambitious, but you shouldn’t compromise with being realistic as well. If you have just applied at the end, and you don’t possess all the relevant qualifications, don’t be disheartened by missing the goal. Try to accept that you are at the entry-level, and you will be required to train and complete some internships to make a career in the field. 

Analyzing all the steps in the initial stage will give you a better idea of what should be expected. You should prepare yourself for a long career journey and understand that the process can be a bit disheartening. 

While mapping out short-term goals, you should also have some long-term ones. If your career requires a lot of steps then, you must make an ultimate goal, like which position you want to hold, or what impact you want to make. Create a concrete plan, and keep it flexible, and this will allow you to slowly make your way forward and ultimately reach your final goal. 

Take Your First Step To A New Career

Making a career choice is hardly easy, but with the correct guidance, and help, the process will become smoother. When you take your first step towards your career, you should ensure that you have the right skills needed for the job. You can find numerous courses and training modules online that can help you sharpen your skills and stand out from the competition. 

The process of choosing a path and eventually achieving your final goal won’t happen overnight. With educational skills, you will also need determination, patience, and hard work to make it to the top. Stay true to yourself and follow the process, and eventually, you will reach where you always wanted to go. 

What is New In CodeIgniter 4.x?

By Dhananjay → December 4, 2018

Jquery noConflict()

By Dhananjay → September 21, 2018
What is noConflict() method in jQuery?
This is very important to differentiate scripts when we are using many JavaScript framework in our project.As we know jQuery uses dollar symbol ($) as shortcut. There are many other popular frameworks are there as Angular JS,Knockout JS,Kendo JS,Backbone JS,Ember ,Vue etc.
Suppose i one of these frameworks is using the $ symbol as shortcut then one of the scripts either jQuery or othe framework implemented parallel may stop working. noConflict is a method to avoid such situation in script.

We can create our self defined symbol or string as shortcut for jQuery. noConflict() return a reference and we can store this reference in a variable.

Example of noConflict() and self defined shortcut:

var jq = $.noConflict();
        jq("p").text("Hi there,Conflict resolved");

Most Common Jquery Functions in various Interviews

By Dhananjay →
jQuery is a rich library and a very lightweight framework to provide javascript enhanced and modified functionality to our web page.
This is so popular because it has number of functions events, chaining properties and they make it convenient as well as easy to use.
Find some beautiful functions and their explanations in one line.

show(): display a hidden dom , set a style property display as Block.
hide(): Hide the selector from dom tree, visible on browser.
animate(): Apply animation effetcs with selectors.
empty(): Empty the the dom and also removes the child elements.
remove(): remove selector dom from tree
removeClass():remove class or classes from selectors
addClass():add class or classes to the selectors
toggleClass():add and remove simultaneously
stop():stop the propagation of event.
fadeIn():hide dom with a fading down effect.
fadeOut():display dom with a fadind out effect.
val():get the value of form elements.
text():get the text in dom.
html():get the HTML in dom.
child():find the child elements in dom.
parent():find the immediate parent elelment of the dom.
parents():find the parents of parent of selector in the dome tree .
siblings():find the parellel elements in the dom tree.
slideDown():display the dom with a sliding to downwards effect.
slideUp():hisde the dome with a sliding to up effect.
attr():get the attribute of DOM.
append():add the given object to the selector one after one, in a stack style. Object is added as last child always.
prepend():add the given object to the selector , but the object is added as the first child always.
after():add an object just after the selector.
before():add and object just before the selector.
css():add some inline css properties to the selector.
first():get the first element in the childs.
last():get the last element in the child.
eq():find the object of equal index passed to it.
noConflict():avoid conflicts with other javascript framework using $ as shortcut symbol.

jQuery Events Frequently asked in various Interviews

By Dhananjay →
Jquery events are attached with some function and function called when event triggers. On a web page actions taken by visitors are events. They can be responded accordingly as click,change,blur,focus,keypress etc. Some common events as categorised as :
Mouse Events : click,dblclick,hover
Keyboard Events : keypress,keydown,keyup
Form Events : change,select,focus,blur
Window : load,scroll,resize

Most Common events and their explanation in one line:

click(): event is triggered when an element is clicked.
change(): event is triggered when the value of a form field is changed.
focus(): event is triggered when a form field is focused.
blur(): event is triggered when a form field is blured.
hover(): event is triggered when moue pointer hover the element.
focusin(): event is triggered when the chield of and element is focused.
focusout(): event is triggered when the chiled of an element is blured.
keydown(): event is triggered when a key from keyboard is pressed down.
keypress(): event is triggered when a key is pressed .keypress event is not fired for ALT, CTRL, SHIFT, ESC.
keyup(): event is triggered when a pressed key is released.
load(): event is triggered when a dom is loaded.
unload(): event is triggered when a dom is unloaded.
mouseenter(): event is triggered when mouse pointer enters the area.
mousedown(): event is triggered when left mouse button is clicked.
mouseout(): event is triggered when mouse pointer leaves the area.
on(): on event is used to add additional handler to dom element.
submit(): event is triggered when form is submitted.
scroll(): event is triggered when the window is scrolled.
select(): event is triggered when the a form element is selected, in combobox or dropdown list.
ready(): event is triggered when the dom is ready and loaded in tree.
resize(): event is triggered when window dimensions are resized.

80 PHP functions asked in any Interview

By Dhananjay → September 11, 2018
This post contains the list of PHP functions that are frequently asked in various interview from freshers as well as experienced candidates. These are the parts of basic and core PHP. One must be familiar with these functions, I have just mentioned the definition in one line for each functions.They are frequently used in our application. Hope you will find this helpful.
  1. strlen() : returns the length of string passed.
  2. stristr() : returns rest of the string after the first occurence of a string in another string.
  3. stripos() : find the position of the first occurence of the string in another string.
  4. strip_tags() : returns string from html tags.
  5. strchr() : find first occurence of a string in another string and returns rest of the string.
  6. str_word_count() : returnd number of words in a string.
  7. str_split() : returns an array of charecters that string contains, when passed to it.
  8. str_replace() : search and replace a substring in a string by another substring.
  9. str_pad() : provide a virtual length to a string. It adds desired charecter to a string to make it up to required length.
  10. str_repeat() : Return a repeated string by a number of times.
  11. str_getcsv() : Parse a string to get the fields for CSV.
  12. rtrim() : remove white spaces from a string from right side.
  13. ord() : When we need to find ASCII value of the first charecter of the string we use ord().
  14. nl2br() : Conver all the new line charecters to BR tag of HTML.
  15. strstr() : returns rest of the string after the first occurence of a string in another string, find only case sensitive string.
  16. strtok() : breaks a strings into substrings
  17. strtoupper() : convert the case of string into uppercase.
  18. strtolower() : convert the case of string into lowercase.
  19. substr() : return a substring from a string of a length and from starting position.
  20. trim() : removes the white spaces from a string from left and right.
  21. ucfirst() : convert the case of first letters of all words in a string to uppercase.
  22. wordwrap() : break lines after a length.
  23. print() : output the result string when passed to it.
  24. print_r() : prints a resources ,object or an array along with the indexes.
  25. unlink() : delete a file from its location.
  26. unset() : set the value of a variable undefined.
  27. isset() : check whether the variable is defined or not.
  28. empty() : check whether an array is empty.
  29. array_chunk() : breaks an array into chunks of small arrays.
  30. array_combine() : combine two arrays of equal size where one is used for keys and another one is used for values.
  31. array_count_values() : count and returns the number of values of an array
  32. array_diff() : returns an array having difference between two arrays.
  33. array_flip() : flip key and value simultaneously.
  34. array_filter() : filter the values of an array based on a callback function.
  35. array_key_exists() : returns true if a key exists in an array.
  36. array_keys() : returns the array of keys from an array.
  37. array_map() : apply some operation on each value of an array and return a new array with modified values.
  38. array_merge() : merge the values of two array while retaining their keys.
  39. array_merge_recursive() : merge multidimensional arrays.
  40. array_push() : add a new value in an array at the end.
  41. array_rand() : select some random keys from an array.
  42. array_replace() : replace values in an array from the values in another array.
  43. array_reverse() : reverse the order of array and return new array.
  44. array_search() : search a value in an array and return the key of the value.
  45. array_shift() : remove the first element in an array.
  46. array_sum() : sum up all the values in an array.
  47. array_unique() : remove all the replicated values in an array.
  48. array_values() : returns an array of values with numeric index.
  49. array_walk() : Go to each value and run over an user defined function.
  50. array_walk_recursive() : Does the same recursively for an array.
  51. compact() : The compact() function creates an array from variables and their values.
  52. asort() : Sort an array values in ascending order.
  53. arsort() : Sort an array values in descending order.
  54. in_array() : returns true if a value find in an array.
  55. key() : return the key from the current pointer position.
  56. krsort() : sort and array based on keys and in descending order.
  57. ksort() : sort and array based on keys and in ascending order.
  58. range() : create an array from the range passed to it.
  59. date_create() : create a new dateTime object.
  60. date_create_from_format() : Create a user defined date from given format.
  61. date_diff() : returns difference between two dates.
  62. date_sub() : suntracts some period of time from a given date.
  63. date() : output the current date and time based on parameters given to it.
  64. gettimeofday() : output current time.
  65. gmmktime() : output UNIX time for GMT.
  66. localtime() : returns local time as UNIX timestamp.
  67. strtotime() : convert a string having datetime information into UNIX date.
  68. time() : eturn the current time.
  69. ceil() : returns the next interger value of the floating number passed to it.
  70. floor(): returns the next lowest integer value
  71. abs() : returns the absolute value passed to it.
  72. base_convert() : convert the base of number system.
  73. is_nan() : check whether a value is Not a Number.
  74. is_infinite() : check wherther a value is Infine.
  75. max() : find the max value from an array.
  76. min() : find minimum value from an array.
  77. mt_rand() : based on Mersenne Twister algorithm creates a random number.
  78. rand() : generate a random number
  79. round() : returns a floating point number up to a particular place of decimal point.
  80. sqrt() : returns the square root of the value passed to it.

Hooks in CodeIgniter

By Dhananjay →

Hooks in CodeIgniter

In code igniter hooks are the points before and after the execution where we can call some specific functions. These functions are called hooks and points where we call hooks are called hook point. Hooks are usefull when we have to make some changes throught the application , then we can do this without hacking all the files, just adding one hook at appropriate point. We can modify the way of usual rendering in code igniter application. So hooks facilitates modification in functionality without changing the core.

How we can use a hook in code igniter framework?
Before we use any hook in application we need to enable the hook in config.php file.Set the enable_hook config variable : TRUE,

$config['enable_hooks'] = TRUE;

The framework provide number of Hook Points to ease the development and modification in application:

The pre_system is called very early during system execution. Only the benchmark and hooks class have been loaded at this point.

As per the name just called before any of your controllers being called. When all the base classes are loaded, routing and security checks are done a pre_controller hook is called.

The hook is called just after the controller class instantiated but none of the method is called.

Called immediately after your controller is fully executed.

We have the _display() function in our core and we use it to render our view on browser after execution of all programms.
display_override allow use to display our own content at desired places.

$this->CI => get_instance();

We can call our own function instead of _display_cache() function using the cache_override hook. We can define our own cache display mechanism.

At the end of the system execution when final rendering is done post_system is called.

Define a hook :
A hook is defined in the hooks.php file located at application/config

Example for define a pre_controller hook:

$hook['pre_controller'] = array(  
            'class' => 'Classname',  
            'function' => 'functionname',  
            'filename' => 'filename.php',  
            'filepath' => 'hooks',  
            'params' => array('element1', 'element2', 'element3')  

Wordpress Dashboard - Tutorial 4

By Dhananjay → September 10, 2018

Admin Login

  • Give the user name and password .
  • Check the remember box as the browser will remind the login and password next time.

Dashboard area contains the following main tools and links:
  • Welcome section
  • Main menu(side menu)
  • Top menu
  • Admin area
  • Screen option
  • Help option
  • Quick draft section
  • At a glance section
  • Activity section

Welcome Section
  • This section has some important links which used frequently.
  • We can customize our site look as we click on Customize Your Site button.
  • Direct links to add an about page, to write the first blog.
  • We can turn on/turn off comments by external user on our posts from here.
  • We can visit our menu and widget systems from the link given.  

Screen Options:
  • Screen option shows a group of check boxes.
  • Each check box is for a particular section.
  • If it is checked the section is on the screen on the dashboard .
  • Unchecked boxes hide the section from dashboard.
  • Ex - we have to hide the Welcome section from screen. We will uncheck it.

WordPress Installation : Tutorial 3

By Dhananjay →

WordPress Installation
Before install a WordPress we should ensure that we have already created a database , where we have to create the WordPress tables with a prefix name .Default is prefix is wp_. We should have the following information as we are going to install the WordPress:
  • Database Name: wordpress
  • User name: root
  • Password: by default blank
  • Hostname:localhost
  1. Put the database name as you have created in the database field. It appears “wordpress” by default.
  2. Give the mysql user name, which is root by default.
  3. Give the password of mysql , if you have’n define , then let the password field blank.
  4. Give the host name as running on default port, localhost.
  5. Give a prefix for the table name , which are being install in database.
A wp-config.php file is created, containing the information about database, username, password etc, at the time of installation.