Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) Interview Questions

Following are the Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) Interview Questions related to Java/Python/PHP/c++. These questions and their multiple options will be helpful for you to clear the doubt in Object Oriented Programming concepts. These are equally helpful for freshers and experienced aspirants. These questions are very useful when you are doing OOP LinkedIn Skill Assessment Quiz and any online Multiple Choice Based quiz for any company.

Q1. What is an example of dynamic binding?

  1. any method
  2. method overloading
  3. method overriding
  4. compiling

Q2. For which case would the use of a static attribute be appropriate?

  1. the number of people in each house in a small neighborhood
  2. the lot size for each house in a small neighborhood
  3. the color of each house in a small neighborhood
  4. the weather conditions for each house in a small neighborhood

Q3.1 Why would you create an abstract class, if it can have no real instances?

  1. to avoid redundant coding in children
  2. to explore a hypothetical class
  3. to prevent unwanted method implementation
  4. to reserve memory for an unspecified class type

Q3.2 Why would you create an abstract class, if it can have no real instances?

  1. to have common behavior in derived classes
  2. to explore a hypothetical class
  3. to prevent unwanted method implementation
  4. to reserve memory for an unspecified class type

Q4. When does static binding happen?

  1. only when you export
  2. both at compile time and runtime
  3. at compile time
  4. at runtime

Q5. What is the best reason to use a design pattern?

  1. It will result in code that is more extensible and maintainable
  2. It will result in a more compact product.
  3. It will speed initial development.
  4. It will allow you to add that design pattern to your resume.

Q6. What is encapsulation?

  1. defining classes by focusing on what is important for a purpose
  2. hiding the data and implementation details within a class
  3. making all methods private
  4. using words to define classes

Q7. What is an IS-A relationship?

  1. It implies encapsulation.
  2. A superclass object has an IS-A relationship with its subclass.
  3. It implies a virtual method.
  4. A subclass object has an IS-A relationship with its superclass or interface

Q8. You want a method with behavior similar to a virtual method–it is meant to be overridden –expect that it does not have a method body. It just has a method signature. What kind of method should you use?

  1. an abstract method
  2. a public internal method
  3. an internal method
  4. a protected internal method

Q9. Which code creates a new object from the Employee class?

  1. Employee current Employee = Employee.Create();
  2. Employee current Employee = new Employee();
  3. Employee currentEmployee;
  4. Employee currentEmployee = Employee.New();

Q10. Which type of constructor cannot have a return type?

  1. default
  2. copy
  3. parameterized
  4. Constructors do not have a return type

Q11.1 When is a constructor executed?

  1. when an object is created from a class using the new keyword
  2. when an class is defined using the class keyword
  3. every time an object is referenced
  4. when an object is created from a class using the create keyword

Q11.2 When is a constructor executed?

  1. when an object is created from a class
  2. when an class is defined using the class keyword
  3. every time an object is referenced
  4. when an object is created from a class using the create keyword

Q12. If a local class is defined in a function, what is true for an object of that class?

  1. The object can be accessed, declared, and used locally in that function.
  2. The object must be declared inside any other function.
  3. The object is temporarily accessible outside the function.
  4. The object can call all the other class members anywhere in the program.

Q13. Which two blocks are used to handle and check errors?

  1. do and check
  2. catching and trying
  3. try and catch
  4. do and while

Q14. Why would you implement composition using an id instead of a reference?

  1. It makes it easier to save the entity.
  2. all of these answers
  3. It can make the entity retrieval more efficient
  4. It minimizes coupling.

Q15. Which statement best describes the method of inheritance in OOP?

  1. Inheritance describes the ability to create new classes based on an existing class.
  2. Inheritance means that a group of related properties, methods, and other members are treated as a single unit or object.
  3. Inheritance forces a class to have a single responsibility from only one parent.
  4. Inheritance means that you will never have multiple classes that can be used interchangeably, even though each class implements the same properties or methods in different ways.

Q16 Which type of inheritance ,when done continuously, is similar to a tree structure?

  1. multilevel
  2. hierarchical and multiple
  3. hierarchical
  4. multiple

Q17. Which statement is true?

  1. A default parameter’s constructor is not equivalent to the default constructor
  2. A default constructor is inherited from a parent class
  3. A default constructor can be called explicitly
  4. A default constructor cannot be defined by the coder

Q18. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of using getters and setters?

  1. Getters and setters can speed up compilation.
  2. Getters and setters provide encapsulation of behavior.
  3. Getters and setters provide a debugging point for when a property changes at runtime.
  4. Getters and setters permit different access levels.

Q19. In the context of OOP, what is association?

  1. Association is a relationship where all objects have their own life cycle and there is no owner.
  2. Association is the process where model elements cooperate to provide higher-level behavior.
  3. Association is a whole/part relationship where one object is composed of one or more other objects, each of which is considered a part of the whole.
  4. Association is where all objects have their own life cycle, but there is ownership, and child objects can not belong to another parent object.

Q20. How are user stories different from use cases?

  1. User Stories are shorter and less detailed.
  2. User stories are more accurate.
  3. User stories are more detailed and structured.
  4. User stories are more anecdotal and personal.

Q21. Which type of inheritance must be used so that the resultant is hybrid?

  1. multiple
  2. any type of inheritance
  3. multilevel
  4. hierarchical
Hybrid inheritance is a composition of multiple and hierarchical inheritances

Q22. A language that does not support polymorphism but supports classes is considered what?

  1. an object-based language
  2. a class-based language
  3. a procedure-oriented language
  4. if classes are supported, polymorphism will be supported

Q23. If two classes combine some private data members and provide public member functions to access and manipulate those data members. Where is abstraction used?

  1. Abstraction is using a private access specifier for data members
  2. Abstraction is using public member functions to access and manipulate the data members
  3. Abstraction is using the class concept with both data members and member functions
  4. There is insufficient information to decide where abstraction is being used.

Q24. What are the five Creational Design patterns by the Gang of Four ?

  1. Observer, State, Strategy, Template Method, and Visitor.
  2. Composite, Visitor, State, Prototype, and Singleton.
  3. Composite, Builder, Factory Method, Prototype, and Singleton.
  4. Abstract Factory, Builder, Factory Method, Prototype, and Singleton.

Q25. In multilevel inheritance, one class inherits how many classes?

  1. one class only
  2. two classes
  3. as many classes as required
  4. at least two classes

Q26. if an object is passed by reference, the changes made in the function are reflected **\_\_\_**.

  1. to the main object of the caller function, too
  2. on the caller function object and also the called function object
  3. on the copy of the object that is made during the pass
  4. only in the local scope of the called function

Q27. What is a method?

  1. a set of instructions designed to perform a frequently used operation within a program and return no values
  2. the exact same thing as a function and subroutine
  3. a set of variables that can change over time
  4. a procedure associated with data and behaviour

Q28. A mobile phone is made up of components such as a motherboard, camera, and sensors. The motherboard represents all the functions of a phone, the display shows the display only, and the phone is represented as a whole. Which of the following has the highest level of abstraction?

  1. camera
  2. display
  3. motherboard
  4. mobile phone

Q29. Which class has the highest degree of abstraction in a multilevel inheritance relationship of five levels?

  1. the class at the third level
  2. the class at the first level
  3. All have the same degree of abstraction.
  4. the class at the second level

Q30. In the context of OOP, what is association?

  1. Association is a whole/part relationship where one object is composed of one or more other objects, each of which is considered a part of the whole.
  2. Association is where all objects have their own life cycle, but there is ownership, and child objects can not belong to another parent object.
  3. Association is the process where model elements cooperate to provide higher-level behavior.
  4. Association is a relationship where all objects have their own life cycles and there is no owner.

Q31. Which is NOT one of the basic types of inheritance?

  1. multilevel inheritance
  2. double inheritance
  3. single inheritance
  4. hierarchical inheritance

Q32. Why is code duplication so insidious?

  1. The duplication uses unnecessary space.
  2. One has to maintain all the duplicates.
  3. Duplication can cause intellectual property concerns.
  4. Duplication is easy to hide.

Q33. When and how often is a static constructor called?

  1. It is called initially when an object is created and called with every new object instance.
  2. It is called when an object is destroyed and only one time.
  3. It is called initially when an object is created and only one time.
  4. It is created at a time when the object is discarded.

Q34. What does the code shown below demonstrate, and why?

  static void Multiply(int num1, int num2) {};

   static void Multiply(double num1, double num2, double num3) {};

   static void Multiply(float num1, float num2) {};


  1. polymorphism, because each method can perform different task
  2. method overriding, because it display the same method name, different or same parameters, and same return type
  3. method overloading, because it allows the creation of several methods with the same name, which differ by the type of input via parameter
  4. method overriding, because it display the same method name, different parameters, and same return type

Q35. What is the purpose of a static constructor?

  1. to initialize all the members with static value
  2. to delete the static members when not required
  3. to initialize the static members of class
  4. to clear all the static members’ initialized values

Q36. What are CRC Cards?

  1. Code Responsibility Collection cards are a brainstorming tool used in the design of procedural software
  2. Class responsible collaboration cards are a brainstorming tool used in the design of oop software
  3. Code Responsibility Correction cards are tools used for debugging
  4. Code Responsibility Correction cards are tools for modeling

Q37.1 How are contents of a composition different from those of aggregation?

  1. if one element of an aggregation is dereferenced, all its elements are eligible for garbage collection
  2. if a composition dies, the contents die
  3. the contents of a composition are all siblings
  4. an aggregation contains only abstract classes

Q37.2 Which statement about compositions and aggregations is true?

  1. if one element of an aggregation is dereferenced, all its elements are eligible for garbage collection
  2. if a composition dies, the contents die
  3. the contents of a composition are all siblings
  4. an aggregation contains only abstract classes

Q38. What is the result of using more abstraction?

  1. it can increase code vulnerability
  2. it can make code unsafe
  3. it can limit code readability
  4. it can be safer for coding

Q39. Which is false for a member function of a class?

  1. they can be defined only inside or outside the class body
  2. the can be made to be friends of another class
  3. they do not need to be declared inside the class definiton
  4. they need to be defined

Q40. Why is inheritance used when creating a new class?

  1. to protect attributes from unwanted changes
  2. to delegate coding responsibility more efficiently
  3. to conserve memory
  4. to avoid writing duplicate code

Q41. In addition to attributes and behaviours, what quality must a class possess?

  1. a name
  2. a state
  3. a color
  4. an object

Q42. Which type of function among the following shows polymorphism?

  1. inline function
  2. undefined function
  3. virtual function
  4. class member function

Q43. Which words in the following list are candidates for objects: trumpet, clean, enrage, leaf, tree, collapse, active, and lively?

  1. leaf and tree
  2. clean, enrage, and collapse
  3. clean, active, and lively
  4. leaf, tree, and trumpet

Q44. What best describes what object-oriented programming does?

  1. It focuses on objects that interact cleanly with one another.
  2. It programs exclusively to interfaces.
  3. It programs exclusively to classes.
  4. It creates one class for all business logic.

Q45. Can abstract classes be used in multilevel inheritance?

  1. No, abstract classes can be used only in single-level inheritance since they must be immediately implemented.
  2. yes, always
  3. yes, but with only one abstract class
  4. No, abstract classes do not have constructors.

Q46. What type of inheritance may lead to the diamond problem?

  1. single level
  2. multilevel
  3. hierarchical
  4. multiple

Q47. How are the contents of a composition different from those of an aggregation?

  1. The contents of a composition are all siblings.
  2. An aggregation contains only abstract classes.
  3. If a composition dies, the contents die.
  4. If one element of an aggregation is dereferenced, all its elements are eligible for garbage collection.

Q48. What is the relationship between abstraction and encapsulation?

  1. Abstraction is about making relevant information visible, while encapsulation enables a programmer to implement the desired level of abstraction.
  2. Abstraction and encapsulation are essentially the same.
  3. Abstraction and encapsulation are unrelated.
  4. Encapsulation is about making relevant information visible, while abstraction enables a programmer to implement the desired level of encapsulation.

Q49. Which of these keywords are access specifiers?

  1. abstract and public
  2. public and private
  3. this and final
  4. final and abstract

Q50. Why is inheritance used when creating a new class?

  1. to conserve memory
  2. to protect attributes from unwanted changes
  3. to separate class behaviour from the more general to the more specific
  4. to delegate coding responsibility more efficiently

Q51. What is a reference to an object?

  1. It is the address of the variable only — not the method of an object.
  2. It is a shallow pointer that contains the address of an object.
  3. It is the physical address of an object.
  4. It is the address where the variables and methods of an object are stored.

Q52. Why is unit testing harder in OOP than functional programming?

  1. Objects may maintain internal state, which is not easily accessible by the tests.
  2. The quality of unit testing frameworks for functional languages is better.
  3. OOP promotes code reuse, which means that your tests have to consider more use cases.
  4. Object-oriented languages tend to rely on frameworks such as Spring or Hibernate, which make them difficult to test.

Q53. What is the function of a user diagram?

  1. It connects actors to use cases.
  2. It links actors to roles played in all use cases.
  3. It lists all actors for each use case.
  4. It minimizes the number of actors required.


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LinkedIn Machine Learning Assessment

Q1. You are part of data science team that is working for a national fast-food chain. You create a simple report that shows trend: Customers who visit the store more often and buy smaller meals spend more than customers who visit less frequently and buy larger meals. What is the most likely diagram that your team created?

  • multiclass classification diagram
  • linear regression and scatter plots
  • pivot table
  • K-means cluster diagram

Q2. You work for an organization that sells a spam filtering service to large companies. Your organization wants to transition its product to use machine learning. It currently a list Of 250,00 keywords. If a message contains more than few of these keywords, then it is identified as spam. What would be one advantage of transitioning to machine learning?

  • The product would look for new patterns in spam messages.
  • The product could go through the keyword list much more quickly.
  • The product could have a much longer keyword list.
  • The product could find spam messages using far fewer keywords.

Q3. You work for a music streaming service and want to use supervised machine learning to classify music into different genres. Your service has collected thousands of songs in each genre, and you used this as your training data. Now you pull out a small random subset of all the songs in your service. What is this subset called?

  • data cluster
  • Supervised set
  • big data
  • test data

Q4. In traditional computer programming, you input commands. What do you input with machine learning?

  • patterns
  • programs
  • rules
  • data

Q5. Your company wants to predict whether existing automotive insurance customers are more likely to buy homeowners insurance. It created a model to better predict the best customers contact about homeowners insurance, and the model had a low variance but high bias. What does that say about the data model?

  • It was consistently wrong.
  • It was inconsistently wrong.
  • It was consistently right.
  • It was equally right end wrong.


Q6. You want to identify global weather patterns that may have been affected by climate change. To do so, you want to use machine learning algorithms to find patterns that would otherwise be imperceptible to a human meteorologist. What is the place to start?

  • Find labeled data of sunny days so that the machine will learn to identify bad weather.
  • Use unsupervised learning have the machine look for anomalies in a massive weather database.
  • Create a training set of unusual patterns and ask the machine learning algorithms to classify them.
  • Create a training set of normal weather and have the machine look for similar patterns.

Q7. You work in a data science team that wants to improve the accuracy of its K-nearest neighbor result by running on top of a naive Bayes result. What is this an example of?

  • regression
  • boosting
  • bagging
  • stacking

Q8. \_\_\_\_ looks at the relationship between predictors and your outcome.

  • Regression analysis
  • K-means clustering
  • Big data
  • Unsupervised learning

Q9. What is an example of a commercial application for a machine learning system?

  • a data entry system
  • a data warehouse system
  • a massive data repository
  • a product recommendation system

Q10. What does this image illustrate?

  • a decision tree
  • reinforcement learning
  • K-nearest neighbor
  • a clear trendline

Q11. You work for a power company that owns hundreds of thousands of electric meters. These meters are connected to the internet and transmit energy usage data in real-time. Your supervisor asks you to direct project to use machine learning to analyze this usage data. Why are machine learning algorithms ideal in this scenario?

  • The algorithms would help the meters access the internet.
  • The algorithms will improve the wireless connectivity.
  • The algorithms would help your organization see patterns of the data.
  • By using machine learning algorithms, you are creating an IoT device.

Q12. To predict a quantity value. use \_\_\_\_.

  • regression
  • clustering
  • classification
  • dimensionality reduction

Q13. Why is naive Bayes called naive?

  • It naively assumes that you will have no data.
  • It does not even try to create accurate predictions.
  • It naively assumes that the predictors are independent from one another.
  • It naively assumes that all the predictors depend on one another.

Q14. You work for an ice cream shop and created the chart below, which shows the relationship between the outside temperature and ice cream sales. What is the best description of this chart?

  • It is a linear regression chart.
  • It is a supervised trendline chart.
  • It is a decision tree.
  • It is a clustering trend chart.

Q15. How is machine learning related to artificial intelligence?

  • Artificial intelligence focuses on classification, while machine learning is about clustering data.
  • Machine learning is a type of artificial intelligence that relies on learning through data.
  • Artificial intelligence is form of unsupervised machine learning.
  • Machine learning and artificial intelligence are the same thing.

Q16. How do machine learning algorithms make more precise predictions?

  • The algorithms are typically run more powerful servers.
  • The algorithms are better at seeing patterns in the data.
  • Machine learning servers can host larger databases.
  • The algorithms can run on unstructured data.

Q17. You work for an insurance company. Which machine learning project would add the most value for the company!

  • Create an artificial neural network that would host the company directory.
  • Use machine learning to better predict risk.
  • Create an algorithm that consolidates all of your Excel spreadsheets into one data lake.
  • Use machine learning and big data to research salary requirements.

Q18. What is the missing information in this diagram?

  • Training Set
  • Unsupervised Data
  • Supervised Learning
  • Binary Classification

Q19. What is one reason not to use the same data for both your training set and your testing set?

  • You will almost certainly underfit the model.
  • You will pick the wrong algorithm.
  • You might not have enough data for both.
  • You will almost certainly overfit the model.

Q20. Your university wants to use machine learning algorithms to help sort through incoming student applications. An administrator asks if the admissions decisions might be biased against any particular group, such as women. What would be the best answer?

  • Machine learning algorithms are based on math and statistics, and so by definition will be unbiased.
  • There is no way to identify bias in the data.
  • Machine learning algorithms are powerful enough to eliminate bias from the data.
  • All human-created data is biased, and data scientists need to account for that.

Explanation: While machine learning algorithms don’t have bias, the data can have them.

Q21. What is stacking?

  • The predictions of one model become the inputs another.
  • You use different versions of machine learning algorithms.
  • You use several machine learning algorithms to boost your results.
  • You stack your training set and testing set together.

Q22. You want to create a supervised machine learning system that identifies pictures of kittens on social media. To do this, you have collected more than 100,000 images of kittens. What is this collection of images called?

  • training data
  • linear regression
  • big data
  • test data

Q23. You are working on a project that involves clustering together images of different dogs. You take image and identify it as your centroid image. What type machine learning algorithm are you using?

  • centroid reinforcement
  • K-nearest neighbor
  • binary classification
  • K-means clustering

Explanation: The problem explicitly states “clustering”.

Q24. Your company wants you to build an internal email text prediction model to speed up the time that employees spend writing emails. What should you do?

  • Include training email data from all employees.
  • Include training email data from new employees.
  • Include training email data from seasoned employees.
  • Include training email data from employees who write the majority of internal emails.

Q25. Your organization allows people to create online professional profiles. A key feature is the ability to create clusters of people who are professionally connected to one another. What type of machine learning method is used to create these clusters?

  • unsupervised machine learning
  • binary classification
  • supervised machine learning
  • reinforcement learning

Q26. What is this diagram a good example of?

  • K-nearest neighbor
  • a decision tree
  • a linear regression
  • a K-means cluster

Note: there are centres of clusters (C0, C1, C2).

Q27. Random forest is modified and improved version of which earlier technique?

  • aggregated trees
  • boosted trees
  • bagged trees
  • stacked trees

Q28. Self-organizing maps are specialized neural network for which type of machine learning?

  • semi-supervised learning
  • supervised learning
  • reinforcement learning
  • unsupervised learning

Q29. Which statement about K-means clustering is true?

  • In K-means clustering, the initial centroids are sometimes randomly selected.
  • K-means clustering is often used in supervised machine learning.
  • The number of clusters are always randomly selected.
  • To be accurate, you want your centroids outside of the cluster.

Q30. You created machine learning system that interacts with its environment and responds to errors and rewards. What type of machine learning system is it?

  • supervised learning
  • semi-supervised learning
  • reinforcement learning
  • unsupervised learning

Q31. Your data science team must build a binary classifier, and the number one criterion is the fastest possible scoring at deployment. It may even be deployed in real time. Which technique will produce a model that will likely be fastest for the deployment team use to new cases?

  • random forest
  • logistic regression
  • KNN
  • deep neural network

Q32. Your data science team wants to use the K-nearest neighbor classification algorithm. Someone on your team wants to use a K of 25. What are the challenges of this approach?

  • Higher K values will produce noisy data.
  • Higher K values lower the bias but increase the variance.
  • Higher K values need a larger training set.
  • Higher K values lower the variance but increase the bias.

Q33. Your machine learning system is attempting to describe a hidden structure from unlabeled data. How would you describe this machine learning method?

  • supervised learning
  • unsupervised learning
  • reinforcement learning
  • semi-unsupervised learning

Q34. You work for a large credit card processing company that wants to create targeted promotions for its customers. The data science team created a machine learning system that groups together customers who made similar purchases, and divides those customers based on customer loyalty. How would you describe this machine learning approach?

  • It uses unsupervised learning to cluster together transactions and unsupervised learning to classify the customers.
  • It uses only unsupervised machine learning.
  • It uses supervised learning to create clusters and unsupervised learning for classification.
  • It uses reinforcement learning to classify the customers.

Q35. You are using K-nearest neighbor and you have a K of 1. What are you likely to see when you train the model?

  • high variance and low bias
  • low bias and low variance
  • low variance and high bias
  • high bias and high variance

Q36. Are data model bias and variance a challenge with unsupervised learning?

  • No, data model bias and variance are only a challenge with reinforcement learning.
  • Yes, data model bias is a challenge when the machine creates clusters.
  • Yes, data model variance trains the unsupervised machine learning algorithm.
  • No, data model bias and variance involve supervised learning.

Q37. Which choice is best for binary classification?

  • K-means
  • Logistic regression
  • Linear regression
  • Principal Component Analysis (PCA)

Explanation: Logistic regression is far better than linear regression at binary classification since it biases the result toward one extreme or the other. K-means clustering can be used for classification but is not as accurate in most scenarios.

Q38. With traditional programming, the programmer typically inputs commands. With machine learning, the programmer inputs

  • supervised learning
  • data
  • unsupervised learning
  • algorithms

Explanation: This one is pretty straight forward and a fundamental concept.

Q39. Why is it important for machine learning algorithms to have access to high-quality data?

  • It will take too long for programmers to scrub poor data.
  • If the data is high quality, the algorithms will be easier to develop.
  • Low-quality data requires much more processing power than high-quality data.
  • If the data is low quality, you will get inaccurate results.

Q40. In K-nearest neighbor, the closer you are to neighbor, the more likely you are to

  • share common characteristics
  • be part of the root node
  • have a Euclidean connection
  • be part of the same cluster

Q41. In the HBO show Silicon Valley, one of the characters creates a mobile application called Not Hot Dog. It works by having the user take a photograph of food with their mobile device. Then the app says whether the food is a hot dog. To create the app, the software developer uploaded hundreds of thousands of pictures of hot dogs. How would you describe this type of machine learning?

  • Reinforcement machine learning
  • unsupervised machine learning
  • supervised machine learning
  • semi-supervised machine learning

Q42. You work for a large pharmaceutical company whose data science team wants to use unsupervised learning machine algorithms to help discover new drugs. What is an advantage to this approach?

  • You will be able to prioritize different classes of drugs, such as antibiotics.
  • You can create a training set of drugs you would like to discover.
  • The algorithms will cluster together drugs that have similar traits.
  • Human experts can create classes of drugs to help guide discovery.

Explanation: This one is similar to an example talked about in the Stanford Machine Learning course.

Q43. In 2015, Google created a machine learning system that could beat a human in the game of Go. This extremely complex game is thought to have more gameplay possibilities than there are atoms of the universe. The first version of the system won by observing hundreds of thousands of hours of human gameplay; the second version learned how to play by getting rewards while playing against itself. How would you describe this transition to different machine learning approaches?

  • The system went from supervised learning to reinforcement learning.
  • The system evolved from supervised learning to unsupervised learning.
  • The system evolved from unsupervised learnin9 to supervised learning.
  • The system evolved from reinforcement learning to unsupervised learning.

Q44. The security company you work for is thinking about adding machine learning algorithms to their computer network threat detection appliance. What is one advantage of using machine learning?

  • It could better protect against undiscovered threats.
  • It would very likely lower the hardware requirements.
  • It would substantially shorten your development time.
  • It would increase the speed of the appliance.

QTraining1. You work for a hospital that is tracking the community spread of a virus. The hospital created a smartwatch app that uploads body temperature data from hundreds of thousands of participants. What is best technique to analyze the data?

  • Use reinforcement learning to reward the system when a new person participates
  • Unsupervised machine learning to cluster together people based on patterns the machine discovers
  • Supervised machine learning to sort people by demographic data
  • supervised ml to classify people by body temperature

QTraining2. Man of the advances in ml have come from improved

  • statistics
  • structured data
  • availability
  • algorithms

Q45. What is this diagram a good example of?

  • unsupervised learning
  • complex cluster
  • multiclass classification
  • k-nearest neighbour

Q46. The supervisor asks to create a ml system that will help your hr dep. classify job applicants into well-defined groups.What type of system are more likely to recommend?

  • deep learning artificial neural network that relies on petabytes of data
  • unsupervised ml system that clusters together the best candidates
  • Not recommend ml for this project
  • supervised ml system that classifies applicants into existing groups // we do not need to classify best candidates we just need to classify job applicants in to existing categories

Q47. Someone of your data science team recommends that you use decision trees, naive Bayes and K-nearest neighbor, all at the same time, on the same training data, and then average the results. What is this an example of?

  • regression analysis
  • unsupervised learning
  • high -variance modeling
  • ensemble modeling

Q48. Your data science team wants to use ml to better filter out spam messages. The team has gathered a database of 100,000 messages that have been identified as spam or not spam. If you are using supervised ml, what would you call this data set?

  • ml algorithm
  • training set
  • big data test set
  • data cluster

Q49. You work for a website that enables customers see all images of themselves on the internet by uploading one self-photo. Your data model uses 5 characteristics to match people to their foto: color, eye, gender, eyeglasses and facial hair. Your customers have been complaining that get tens of thousands of fotos without them. What is the problem?

  • You are overfitting the model to the data
  • You need a smaller training set
  • You are underfitting the model to the data
  • You need a larger training set

Q50. Your supervisor asks you to create a machine learning system that will help your human resources department classify jobs applicants into well defined groups. What type of system are you more likely to recommend?

  • an unsupervised machine learning system that clusters together the best candidates.
  • you would not recommend a machine learning system for this type of project.
  • a deep learning artificial neural network that relies on petabytes of employment data.
  • a supervised machine learning system that classifies applicants into existing groups.

Q51. You and your data science team have 1 TB of example data. What do you typically do with that data?

  • you use it as your training set.
  • You label it big data.
  • You split it into a training set and test set.
  • You use it as your test set.

Q52. Your data science team is working on a machine learning product that can act as an artificial opponent in video games. The team is using a machine learning algorithm that focuses on rewards: If the machine does some things well, then it improves the quality of the outcome. How would you describe this type of machine learning algorithm?

  • semi-supervised machine learning
  • supervised machine learning
  • unsupervised machine learning
  • reinforcement learning

Q53. The model will be trained with data in one single batch is known as ?

  • Batch learning
  • Offline learning
  • Both A and B
  • None of the above

Q54. Which of the following is NOT supervised learning? ?

  • Decision Tree
  • Linear Regression
  • PCA
  • Naive Bayesian

Q55. Suppose we would like to perform clustering on spatial data such as the geometrical locations of houses. We wish to produce clusters of many different sizes and shapes. Which of the following methods is the most appropriate? ?

  • Decision Trees
  • K-means clustering
  • Density-based clustering
  • Model-based clustering

Q59. The error function most suited for gradient descent using logistic regression is

  • The entropy function.
  • The squared error.
  • The cross-entropy function.
  • The number of mistakes.

Q58. Compared to the variance of the Maximum Likelihood Estimate (MLE), the variance of the Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) estimate is ____

  • Higher
  • same
  • Lower
  • it could be any of the above

Q57. **___** refers to a model that can neither model the training data nor generalize to new data.

  • good fitting
  • overfitting
  • underfitting
  • all of the above

Q58. How would you describe this type of classification challenge?

  • This is a multiclass classification challenge.
    Explanation: Shows data being classified into more than two categories or classes. Thus, this is a multi-class classification challenge.
  • This is a multi-binary classification challenge.
  • This is a binary classification challenge.
  • This is a reinforcement classification challenge.

Q59. What does it mean to underfit your data model?

  • There is too little data in your training set.
  • There is too much data in your training set.
  • There is not a lot of variance but there is a high bias.
    // Underfitted data models usually have high bias and low variance. Overfitted data models have low bias and high variance.
  • Your model has low bias but high variance.

Q60. Asian user complains that your company’s facial recognition model does not properly identify their facial expressions. What should you do?

  • Include Asian faces in your test data and retrain your model.
  • Retrain your model with updated hyperparameter values.
  • Retrain your model with smaller batch sizes.
  • Include Asian faces in your training data and retrain your model.
    // The answer is self-explanatory: if Asian users are the only group of people making the complaint, then the training data should have more Asian faces.

Q61. You work for a website that helps match people up for lunch dates. The website boasts that it uses more than 500 predictors to find customers the perfect date, but many costumers complain that they get very few matches. What is a likely problem with your model?

  • Your training set is too large.
  • You are underfitting the model to the data.
  • You are overfitting the model to the data.
    Explanation: // This question is very similar to Q49 but involves a polar opposite scenario.
  • Your machine is creating inaccurate clusters.

// I find that answer somewhat vague and unsettled. Small number of matchings does not necessarily implies that the model overfits, especially given 500 (!) independent variables. To me, it sounds more reasonable that the threshold (matching) criterion might be too tight, thus allowing only a small number of matching to occur. So a solution can be either softening the threshold criterion or increasing the number of candidates.

Q62. (Mostly) whenever we see kernel visualizations online (or some other reference) we are actually seeing:

  • What kernels extract
  • Feature Maps
  • How kernels Look

Q62. The activations for class A, B and C before softmax were 10,8 and 3. The different in softmax values for class A and class B would be :

  • 76%
  • 88%
  • 12%
  • 0.0008%

Q63. The new dataset you have just scraped seems to exhibit lots of missing values. What action will help you minimizing that problem?

  • Wise fill-in of controlled random values
  • Replace missing values with averaging across all samples
  • Remove defective samples
  • Imputation

Q64. Which of the following methods can use either as an unsupervised learning or as a dimensionality reduction technique?

  • SVM
  • PCA
  • LDA
  • TSNE

Q65. What is the main motivation for using activation functions in ANN?

  • Capturing complex non-linear patterns
  • Transforming continuous values into “ON” (1) or “OFF” (0) values
  • Help avoiding the vanishing/exploding gradient problem
  • Their ability to activate each neurons individually.

Q66. Which loss function would fit best in a categorical (discrete) supervised learning ?

  • kullback-leibler (KL) loss
  • Binary Crossentropy
  • Mean Squared Error (MSE)
  • Any L2 loss

Q67. What is the correct option?

no. Red Blue Green
1. Validation error Training error Test error
2. Training error Test error Validation error
3. Optimal error Validation error Test error
4. Validation error Training error Optimal error
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4

Q68. You create a decision tree to show whether someone decides to go to the beach. There are three factors in this decision: rainy, overcast, and sunny. What are these three factors called?

  • tree nodes
  • predictors // these nodes decide whether the someone decides to go to beach or not, for example if its rainy people will mostly refrain from going to beach
  • root nodes
  • deciders

Q69. You need to quickly label thousands of images to train a model. What should you do?

  • Set up a cluster of machines to label the images
  • Create a subset of the images and label then yourself
  • Use naive Bayes to automatically generate labels.
  • Hire people to manually label the images

Q70. The fit line and data in the figure exhibits which pattern?

  • low bias, high variance
  • high bias, low variance
  • high bias, high variance
  • low bias, low variance // since the data is accurately classified and is neither overfitting or underfitting the dataset

Q71. Many of the advances in machine learning have come from improved?

  • structured data
  • algorithms
  • time
  • computer scientists

Q72. You need to select a machine learning process to run a distributed neural network on a mobile application. Which would you choose?

  • Scikit-learn
  • PyTorch
  • Tensowflow Lite
  • Tensorflow

Q73. Which choice is the best example of labeled data?

  • a spreadsheet
  • 20,000 recorded voicemail messages
  • 100,000 images of automobiles
  • hundreds of gigabytes of audio files

Q74. In statistics, what is defined as the probability of a hypothesis test of finding an effect – if there is an effect to be found?

  • confidence
  • alpha
  • power
  • significance

Q75. You want to create a machine learning algorithm to identify food recipes on the web. To do this, you create an algorithm that looks at different conditional probabilities. So if the post includes the word flour, it has a slightly stronger probability of being a recipe. If it contains both flour and sugar, it even more likely a recipe. What type of algorithm are you using?

  • naive Bayes classifier
  • K-nearest neighbor
  • multiclass classification
  • decision tree

Q76. What is lazy learning?

  • when the machine learning algorithms do most of the programming
  • when you don’t do any data scrubbing
  • when the learning happens continuously
  • when you run your computation in one big instance at the beginning
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AngularJs – LinkedIn Skill Assessment

Q1. What is the purpose of the ViewChild decorator in this component class?

    . . .
    template: '<p #bio></p>'
    export class UserDetailsComponent {
    @ViewChild('bio') bio;
  • It provides access from within the component class to the ElementRef object for thetag that has the bio template reference variable in the component’s template view. It provides access from within the component class to the null object for the null tag that has the null template reference variable in the component’s template view.
  • It indicates that thetag be rendered as a child of the parent view that uses this component. It indicates that the null tag be rendered as a child of the parent view that uses this component.
  • It makes thetag in the template support content projection. It makes the null tag in the template support content projection.
  • It makes thetag visible in the final render. If the #bio was used in the template and the @ViewChild was not used in the class, then Angular would automatically hide thetag that has #bio on it.

Q2. What method is used to wire up a FormControl to a native DOM input element in reactive forms? What method is used to wire up a null to a native DOM input element in reactive forms?

  • Add the string name given to the FormControl to an attribute named controls on the element to indicate what fields it should include. Add the string name given to the null to an attribute named controls on the null element to indicate what fields it should include.
  • Use the square bracket binding syntax around the value attribute on the DOM element and set that equal to an instance of the FormControl. Use the square bracket binding syntax around the value attribute on the DOM element and set that equal to an instance of the null.
  • Use the formControlName directive and set the value equal to the string name given to the FormControl. Use the null directive and set the value equal to the string name given to the null.
  • Use the string name given to the FormControl as the value for the DOM element id attribute.

Q3. What is the difference between the paramMap and the queryParamMap on the ActivatedRoute class? What is the difference between the null and the null on the null class?

  • The paramMap is an object literal of the parameters in a route’s URL path. The queryParamMap is an Observable of those same parameters. The null is an object literal of the parameters in a route’s URL path. The null is a null of those same parameters.
  • The paramMap is an Observable that contains the parameter values that are part of a route’s URL path. The queryParamMap is a method that takes in an array of keys and is used to find specific parameters in the paramMap. The null is a null that contains the parameter values that are part of a route’s URL path. The null is a method that takes in an array of keys and is used to find specific parameters in the null.
  • paramMap is the legacy name from Angular 3. The new name is queryParamMap.null is the legacy name from Angular 3. The new name is null.
  • Both are Observables containing values from the requested route’s URL string. The paramMap contains the parameter values that are in the URL path and the queryParamMap contains the URL query parameters.

Q4. Based on the following usage of the async pipe, and assuming the users class field is an Observable, how many subscriptions to the users Observable are being made?

    <div *ngFor="let user of users | async">{{ user.name }}</div>
    <div *ngFor="let user of users | async">{{ user.age }}</div>
    <div \*ngFor="let user of users | async">{{ user.gender }}</div>
  • None. The async pipe does not subscribe automatically. None. The null pipe does not subscribe automatically.
  • None. The template syntax is not correct. None. The template syntax is not correct.
  • Three. There is one for each async pipe. Three. There is one for each null pipe.
  • One. The async pipe caches Observables by type internally.

Q5. How can you use the HttpClient to send a POST request to an endpoint from within an addOrder function in this OrderService?

export class OrderService {
    constructor(private httpClient: HttpClient) { }
    addOrder(order: Order) {
    // Missing line
  • this.httpClient.url(this.orderUrl).post(order);null
  • this.httpClient.send(this.orderUrl, order);null
  • this.httpClient.post(this.orderUrl, order);null
  • this.httpClient.post(this.orderUrl, order) .subscribe();

Q6. What is the RouterModule.forRoot method used for? What is the null method used for?

  • registering any providers that you intend to use in routed components registering any providers that you intend to use in routed components
  • registering route definitions at the root application level registering route definitions at the root application level
  • indicating that Angular should cheer on your routes to be successful indicating that Angular should cheer on your routes to be successful
  • declaring that you intend to use routing only at the root level

Q7. Which DOM elements will this component metadata selector match on?

    selector: 'app-user-card',
    . . .
  • any element with the attribute app-user-card, such as

    any element with the attribute null, such as null

  • the first instance of the first instance of null
  • all instances of all instances of null
  • all instances of

Q8. What is the correct template syntax for using the built-in ngFor structural directive to render out a list of productNames?What is the correct template syntax for using the built-in null structural directive to render out a list of null?

  • [ ]
    <li [ngFor]="let productName of productNames">
    {{ productName }}
  • [ ]
    <li ngFor="let productName of productNames">
    {{ productName }}
  • [ ]
    <li *ngFor="let productName of productNames">
    {{ productName }}
  • [ ]
    <? for productName in productNames { ?>
    <li>{{ productName }}</li>
    <? } ?>

Q9. What are the two component decorator metadata properties used to set up CSS styles for a component? What are the two component decorator metadata properties used to set up CSS styles for a component?

  • viewEncapsulation and viewEncapsulationFilesnull and null
  • There is only one and it is the property named css. There is only one and it is the property named null.
  • css and cssUrlnull and null
  • styles and styleUrlsnull and null

Q10. With the following component class, what template syntax would you use in the template to display the value of the title class field?

    selector: 'app-title-card',
    template: ''
    class TitleCardComponent {
    title = 'User Data';
  • {{ ‘title’ }}null
  • {{ title }}null
  • [title]null
  • A class field cannot be displayed in a template via the template syntax.

Q11. What is the purpose of the valueChanges method on a FormControl? What is the purpose of the null method on a null?

  • It is used to configure what values are allowed for the control. It is used to configure what values are allowed for the control.
  • It is used to change the value of a control to a new value. You would call that method and pass in the new value for the form field. It even supports passing in an array of values that can be set over time. It is used to change the value of a control to a new value. You would call that method and pass in the new value for the form field. It even supports passing in an array of values that can be set over time.
  • It returns a Boolean based on if the value of the control is different from the value with which it was initialized. It returns a Boolean based on if the value of the control is different from the value with which it was initialized.
  • It is an observable that emits every time the value of the control changes, so you can react to new values and make logic decisions at that time. It is an null that emits every time the value of the control changes, so you can react to new values and make logic decisions at that time.

Q12. What directive is used to link an <a> tag to routing?

  • routeTo
  • routerLink
  • routePathn
  • appLink

Q13. What is the Output decorator used for in this component class?

    selector: 'app-shopping-cart',
    . . .
    export class ShoppingCartComponent {
    @Output() itemTotalChanged = new EventEmitter();
  • It makes the itemTotalChanged class field public. It makes the null class field public.
  • It provides a way to bind values to the itemTotalChanged class field, like so: <app-shopping-cart [itemTotalChanged]=”newTotal”>. It provides a way to bind values to the null class field, like so: null.
  • It provides a way to bind events to the itemTotalChanged class field, like so: <app-shopping-cart (itemTotalChanged)=”logNewTotal($event)”>. It provides a way to bind events to the null class field, like so: null.
  • It is simply a way to put a comment in front of a class field for documentation.

Q14. What is the difference between these two markup examples for conditionally handling display?

    <div \*ngIf="isVisible">Active</div>
    <div [hidden]="!isVisible">Active</div>
  • The ngIf is shorthand for the other example. When Angular processes that directive, it writes a div element to the DOM with the hidden property. The null is shorthand for the other example. When Angular processes that directive, it writes a null element to the DOM with the null property.
  • They are fundamentally the same. They are fundamentally the same.
  • The ngIf directive does not render the div in the DOM if the expression is false. The hidden property usage hides the div content in the browser viewport, but the div is still in the in the DOM. The null directive does not render the null in the DOM if the expression is null. The null property usage hides the null content in the browser viewport, but the null is still in the in the DOM.
  • The ngIf is valid, but the use of the hidden property is wrong and will throw an error.

Q15. How can you disable the submit button when the form has errors in this template-driven forms example?

<form #userForm="ngForm">
    <input type="text" ngModel name="firstName" required>
    <input type="text" ngModel name="lastName" required>
    <button (click)="submit(userForm.value)">Save</button>
  • [ ]
<button (click)="submit(userForm.value)"
  • [ ]
 <button (click)="submit(userForm.value)"
  • [ ]
 <button (click)="submit(userForm.value)"
  • [ ]
 <button (click)="submit(userForm.value)"
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LinkedIn jQuery Assessment

Here we have given the collection of jQuery Questions and Answers asked in Linked in assessment. LinkedIn Assessment is a test of particular skill. After passing this skill you will get a Bade in your profile and that you can share with your network.

Q1. What’s the difference between these two snippets?

$('button').on('click', function(){ alert('you clicked the button!'); });
$('button').click(function(){ alert('you clicked the button!'); });
  • Only the second one will work; jQuery does not have a function called .on.
  • The second snippet will not function.
  • Nothing .click(function) is shorter way to write .on('click', function).
  • The first snippet will execute for every button on the page, the second will only apply to the first button.

Q2. What does the following line of code do?


  • Loads a paragraph tag from a remote server using AJAX
  • Aliases jQuery to a variable p
  • Selects all paragraphs on the page
  • Creates a new paragraph tag and inserts it into the body tag

Q3. Given the following HTML, how could we use one line to hide or show the button?

<button class="btn btn-primary" type="submit">Continue to checkout</button>
  • $('.btn-primary').toggle();
  • $('.btn-primary').showHide();
  • $('.btn-primary').not(':visible').show();
  • $('.btn-primary').css({ display: 'block'});

Q4. Working with AJAX, we may run into situations where a piece of code should not be run until after multiple AJAX calls have completed successfully. Say we need to call two external services for JSON data (a list of students, and a list of classes). And only after retrieving those data will we perform some manipulations on a page. What is the preferred way for dealing with this scenario?


  • [ ]
$.get([ 'https://example.com/json-api/students', 'https://example.com/json-api/classes' ], function(studentRequest, classRequest) { 
  // the rest of the code goes here 
  • [ ]
$.when( $.get('https://example.com/json-api/students'), $.get('https://example.com/json-api/classes') ).done(function(studentRequest, classRequest) { 
  // the rest of the code goes here 
  • [ ]
$.bind( $.get('https://example.com/json-api/students'), $.get('https://example.com/json-api/classes') ).done(function(studentRequest, classRequest) { 
  // the rest of the code goes here 
  • [x]
$.ajax('https://example.com/json-api/students', { success: function(studentRequest) { $.ajax('https://example.com/json-api/classes', { success: function(classRequest) { 
  // the rest of the code goes here 
} }); } });

Q5. Given the snippet of HTML below, what is the difference between the two lines that follow it?

    <li>Item 1</li>
    <li>Item 2</li>
    <li>Item 3</li>
    <li>Item 4</li>
  • .get() retrieves a DOM element, and can’t be chained, eq() retrieves a jQuery object, and can be chained.
  • .get() retrieves a jQuery object, and can’t be chained, eq() retrieves a DOM element, and can be chained.
  • .get() retrieves a jQuery object, and is zero-indexed, eq() retrieves a DOM element, and is 1-indexed.
  • .get() retrieves a DOM element, and is zero-indexed, eq() retrieves a jQuery object, and is 1-indexed.

Q6. Suppose we want to have a ball created from an HTML element (id=ball) move down and to the right from its original location when clicked, and move back into its original place when finished. Given a starting point of this, which of these snippets would accomplish that goal?

$('#ball').click(function() {
  // Our code goes here
  • [x]
$(this).animate({ top: '+=100', left: '+=100', }, { duration: 600, complete: function() { $(this).animate({ top: '-=100', left: '-=100', }, 600) } });
  • [ ]
$(this).animate({ top: '-=100', left: '-=100', }, 600, function() { $(this).animate({ top: '+=100', left: '+=100', }, 600) });
  • [ ]
$(this).animate({ top: '=100', left: '=100', }, { duration: 600, complete: function() { $(this).animate({ top: 0, left: 0, }, 600) } });
  • [ ]
$(this).animate({ top: '100', left: '100', }, 600, function() { $(this).animate({ top: 0, left: 0, }, 600) });

Q7. Given the following CSS and HTML codes below, how could you apply the success class to the feedback div?

.success {
  color: green;
  background: #ddffdd;
<div class="feedback">
  Thank you for answering this survey.
  • $('.feedback').hasClass('.success');
  • $.css('.feedback', '.success');
  • $('.feedback').addClass('success');
  • $('.feedback').css('.success');

Q8. Below is an example page snippet that includes a couple of messages in a list, and a code snippet that retrieves a few hundred messages from a API endpoints using AJAX. How might we add these items to the page snippet in a way that avoids performance problems with DOM insertions?

<div class="message-area">
  <ul class="message-area--list">
    <li>Existing message 1</li>
    <li>Existing message 2</li>
.done(function(data) {
  var tonsOfItems = data.messages;
  // add all these messages to a large page
  • tonsOfItems.map(function(item) { $('.message-area--list').append('<li>'+item+'</li>'); });
  • var tonsOfListItems = tonsOfItems.map(function(item)) { return '<li>'+item+'</li>'; }); $('.message-area--list').append(tonsOfListItems.join(''));
  • Removing the event handlers with JavaScript will be slower than removing them $.each(tonsOfItems, function(idx, item) { $('<li>'+item+'</li>').appendTo($messageList); });
  • $.each(tonsOfItems, function(idx, item) { $('.message-area--list').append('<li>'+item+'</li>'); });

Q9. What is jQuery?

  • jQuery is a bridge between Java and Javascript that makes native apps easier to write.
  • jQuery is a plugin for JavaScript that makes database queries easier to write.
  • jQuery is a collection of JavaScript functions that makes finding and manipulating elements on a page, AJAX, and other things easier.
  • jQuery is a Chrome extension that allows users to create their own extensions with just a few lines of JavaScript.

Q10. We want to create a new jQuery plugin called linkUpdater that can be chained onto other jQuery selector like a normal plugin. It should update all the links in the referenced collection so they open in new windows or tabs. Below is the first cut. What is one problem with this plugin?

"user strict";
($.linkUpdater = function() {
  this.find('a').attr('target', '_blank');
})( jQuery );
  • this needs to be wrapped, like $(this), in order to be chained in a plugin.
  • jQuery plugins can’t be safely authored in strict mode.
  • In order to be used by other code, plugins need to be added to the global namespace, not wrapped in a function expression.
  • Our plugin should extend jQuery.fn, not jQuery itself.

Q11. Generally speaking, when used on a web page, how should jQuery be installed, and why?

  • Just before the closing body tag, because we want to avoid blocking other resources from loading, and we use the ready method to make sure our code fires after the DOM is ready
  • Using the highest version number possible because only jQuery 3 and up are compatible with Internet Explorer 7
  • In the head tag because we want jQuery available as soon as possible
  • From a CDN because we want to be able to use jQuery online or offline

Q12. Given the following HTML, how could we make this button disappear from the page using jQuery?

<button class="btn btn-primary" type="submit">Continue to checkout</button>
  • $('.btn-primary').hide();
  • $('.btn-primary:visible').not();
  • $('.btn-primary').visibility(false);
  • $('.btn-primary').show(false);

Q13. What is the difference between $('header').html() and $('header').text()?

  • $('header').html() returns the inner HTML of the header. $('header').text() returns only the text
  • $('header').html() returns only the HTML tags used, without the text. $('header').text() returns only the text
  • $('header').html() strips all HTML from the header. $('header').text() always returns an empty string.
  • $('header').html() returns all headers in an HTML document. $('header').text() the first line of a text file.

Q14. When writing jQuery plugins, we often provide default options that may be overridden by the end user. What jQuery function is most useful for this purpose?

  • $.extend
  • $.clone
  • $.fn.extend
  • $.merge

Q15. There are times when you might want to programmatically trigger an event, instead of simply reacting to user input directly. Given this markup, Which choice will NOT cause a click event to the select box when the button is clicked?

    Here's a button you can click: <button class="btn">Click Me</button>
      Further down the page, there's a select box.
      <option value="1">One</option>
      <option value="2">One</option>
      <option value="3">One</option>
      <option value="4">One</option>
  • $('button').on('click.myApp', (function() { $('input[type=select]').trigger('click'); });
  • $('button').on('click', (function() { $('input[type=select]').click()); });
  • $('button').trigger(function() { $('input[type=select]').click(); });
  • $('button').click(function() { $('input[type=select]').click(); });

Q16. You have an absolutely positioned element inside a relatively positioned parent element, and you want to animate that element within its parent element. What jQuery function is most useful for finding the initial coordinates of the .animate-me?

  .parent {
    position: relative;
    top: 3em;
    width: 50%;
    min-height: 50vh;
    margin: 0 auto;

  .animate-me {
    position: absolute;
    top: 40px;
    right: 30px;

<div class="parent">
  <div class="animate-me">
    This box will move!
  • $('.animate-me').offset();
  • $('.animate-me').each();
  • $('.animate-me').position();
  • $('.animate-me').offsetParent();

Q17. You want to work with AJAX using a Promise-like interface instead of nested callback functions. What jQuery API should you use?

  • jQuery.sub
  • jQuery.ajaxTransport
  • jQuery.Deferred
  • jQuery.proxy

Q18. What is tricky about jQuery’s nth- filters (:nth-child, :nth-of-type, etc.) relative to other filters?

  • Referring to lists of items, they are 1-indexed (like CSS), not 0-indexed (like JavaScript).
  • They don’t return the jQuery object, and cannot be chained.
  • They can return the wrong items if the DOM was recently manipulated.
  • They are not part of CSS, so they don’t get the performance benefits of passing through the document.querySelectorAll.

Q19. jQuery’s AJAX functions return objects that implement the Promise API. As a result, you can chain promises and avoid nested callbacks. What does that look like?

  • [x]
  .then(function(response) {
    // Data from first GET is here as 'response'
    return $.get('http://httpbin.org/delay/2');
  .then(function(response) {
    // Data from second GET is here as 'response'
  • [ ]
  .catch(function(response) {
    // Data from first GET is here as 'response'
    return $.get('http://httpbin.org/delay/2');
  .done(function(response) {
    // Data from second GET is here as 'response'
  • [ ]
$.get('hhttp://httpbin.org/delay/2', function(response1) {
  // Data from first GET is here as 'response1'

  $.get('http://httpbin.org/delay/2', function(response2) {
  // Data from second GET is here as 'response2'
  • [ ]
  .then(function(response) {
    // Data from first GET is here as 'response'
    return response;
  .get('http://httpbin.org/delay/2', function(response) {
    // Data from second GET is here as 'response'

Q20. You want to have a ball that is created from an HTML element (id=ball) move down and to the right of its original location when clicked, and move back to its original place when finished. What snippet, added to the code below, would do this?

$('#ball').click(function() {
  // Our code goes here
  • [ ]
  top: '-=100',
  left: '-=100',
}, 600, function() {
  top: '+=100',
  left: '+=100',
  }, 600)
  • [x]
  top: '+=100',
  left: '+=100',
}, {
  duration: 600,
  complete: function() {
  top: '-=100',
  left: '-=100',
  }, 600)
  • [ ]
  top: 100,
  left: 100,
}, 600, function() {
  top: 0,
  left: 0,
  }, 600)
  • [ ]
  top: 100,
  left: 100,
}, {
  duration: 600,
  complete: function() {
  top: 0,
  left: 0,
  }, 600)

Q21. The way .wrap() works is sometimes misunderstood. Given the DOM and jQuery snippets below, what does the modified DOM snippet look like?

<div id="container">
  <div class="item">Here's an item</div>
$('#container').wrap('<div class="wrapper"></div>').css('border', '2px solid red');
  • [ ]
<div class="wrapper" style="border: 2px solid red;">
  <div id="container">
    <div class="item">Here's an item</div>
  • [x]
<div class="wrapper">
  <div id="container" style="border: 2px solid red;">
    <div class="item">Here's an item</div>
  • [ ]
<div id="container" style="border: 2px solid red;">
  <div class="wrapper">
    <div class="item">Here's an item</div>
  • [ ]
<div id="container">
  <div class="wrapper" style="border: 2px solid red;">
    <div class="item">Here's an item</div>

Q22. How can you select the following blockquote AND the list in a single call to jQuery() without chaining?

<div class="quotes">
  <blockquote data-favorite="false">A quote</blockquote>
  <blockquote data-favorite="true">A favorite quote</blockquote>
  <blockquote data-favorite="false">A quote</blockquote>
  <blockquote data-favorite="false">A quote</blockquote>

<ul class="menu-first">
  <li>Item 1</li>
  <li>Item 2</li>
  <li>Item 3</li>
  <li>Item 4</li>
  • $('.quotes + .menu-first')
  • $('.quotes .menu-first')
  • $('.quotes, .menu-first')
  • $('.quotes' + '.menu-first')

Q23. Effects like show, hide, fadIn, and fadeOut can be called with no arguments, but can also take arguments for how long they should last. Which is NOT a duration argument supported by these functions?

  • “fast”
  • “extreme”
  • 2000
  • “slow”

Q24. Though jQuery offers visual effects, it is considered a best practice to use CSS to set up different states triggered by classes, where it makes sense. What’s the easiest way to enable and disable a class bounce on an element with the ID dialog?

  • $('#dialog').classToggle('bounce')
  • $('#dialog.bounce').removeClass().addClass()
  • $('#dialog').addOrRemoveClass('bounce')
  • $('#dialog').toggleClass('bounce')

Q25. What is the main difference between selectors and filters?

  • Selectors are used to refine the content that filters have been applied to.
  • Selectors are used to find and select content in a page. Filters are used to refine the results of selectors.
  • Filters are used to remove content from the page. Selectors are used to add content to the page
  • There is no real difference. They are both used to build up lists of page content.

Q26. You want to create a custom right-click menu. How might you start the code?

  • $('#canvas').on('click.right', function(){ console.log('Handled a right-click') });
  • $('#canvas').on('contextual', function(){ console.log('Handled a right-click') });
  • $('#canvas').on('contextmenu', function(){ console.log('Handled a right-click') });
  • $('#canvas').on('rightclick', function(){ console.log('Handled a right-click') });

Q27. What is the correct way to check how many paragraphs exist on a page using jQuery?

  • $('p').count()
  • $('p').length
  • $('*').find('p')
  • $('p').length()

Q28. As with many areas of JavaScript, keeping track of the meaning of this is important and sometimes tricky. What does this mean at each of the two points in this custom plugin snippet?

$.fn.customPlugin = function() {
  // Point 1

  return this.each(function() {
    // Point 2
  • At Point 1, this means a jQuery object. At Point 2, it means a DOM element.
  • In this case, they mean the same thing: a jQuery object.
  • In this case, they mean the same thing: a DOM element.
  • At Point 1, this means a DOM element. At Point 2, it means a jQuery object.

Q29. How can you make the first list item bold and the next item oblique, in a single statement chain?

<ul class="menu-first">
  <li>Item 1</li>
  <li>Item 2</li>
  <li>Item 3</li>
  <li>Item 4</li>
  • [ ]
$('.menu-first > li')
  .css('font-weight', 'bold')
  .css('font-style', 'oblique');
  • [ ]
$('.menu-first > li')
  .css('font-weight', 'bold')
  .css('font-style', 'oblique');
  • [ ]
$('.menu-first > li')
  .css('font-weight', 'bold')
  .css('font-style', 'oblique');
  • [x]
$('.menu-first > li')
  .css('font-weight', 'bold')
  .css('font-style', 'oblique');

Q30. Which CSS selectors can you NOT use in jQuery?

  • You cannot use multiple class selectors such as .class1.class2.
  • You cannot use pseudo-classes such as :not or :last-of-type.
  • You cannot use IDs and classes together, such as #element.class.
  • None. All CSS selectors are compatible in jQuery.

Q31. Starting with some DOM elements in the nested structure below, you assign listeners for the same event to a child element and one of the parents using the JavaScript that follows. You want to ensure that when .leaf is clicked, only its event handler will be fired, instead of the click bubbling up and also firing the parent’s click handler. What do you need to add to its handler function?

<ul class="items" id="main-menu">
  <li>Item 1<ul>
    <li class="leaf">Sub Item 1</li>
    <li>Sub Item 2</li>
$('.leaf').click( function(event) { console.log('Sub Item 1 got a click'); } );
$('#main-menu').click( function(event) { console.log('Main menu got a click'); } );
  • event.capture();
  • event.stopPropagation();
  • event.preventDefault();
  • event.stop();

Q32. Using event delegation, you can listen for events on a lot of different items without having to attach separate listeners to each one. But there are times when you may want to check the type of item receiving the event before doing anything, such as checking if an image was clicked versus a text field. Given the starter code below, which choice shows what jQuery provides to help with that process?

<div id="sidebar">
  <img src="fancy-button.png" alt="Pick Me">
  <input type="text" placeholder="Fill in something">
$('#sidebar').click(function(evt) {
  var $target = $(evt.target);

  // What goes here?
  • $($target.get(0) + ':image')
  • $('img').is($target)
  • $target.filter('img')
  • $target.is('img')

Q33. There are many ways to create elements that can be added to the page. Which answer is NOT one of those ways, assuming you have the following on the page?

<div id="elements"></div>
  • [ ]
$("#elements").append($('<p class="appended">As an HTML string</p>'));
  • [ ]
var p = document.createElement('p');
var text = document.createTextNode('As a DOM element');
  • [x]
$("#elements").append(<p class="appended">As a JSX object</p>);
  • [ ]
$("#elements").append($('<p>', {
  "class": 'appended',
  'text': "As an attribute object"

Q34. The .addClass() and .removeClass() methods can accept functions as arguments. What does this function do?

$('#menu').addClass(function() {
  return $('body').attr('class');
  • It adds the first class found on the body element to the #menu element.
  • It adds all classes found on the #menu element to the body tag.
  • It replaces any classes on the #menu element with all classes from the body tag.
  • It adds all classes found on the body element to the #menu element.

Q35. You’re working on a site that uses an old version of jQuery, and you want to update to a newer version. What’s the most efficient way to do so?

  • Install the newer version of jQuery, go through each script one by one, and fix what looks broken.
  • Read the change notes for the newer version of jQuery, fix all scripts, install the newer version, and fix anything that remains broken.
  • Install the newer version of jQuery as well as its Migrate plugin, fix all warnings, and uninstall the Migrate plugin.
  • Install the newer version of jQuery at the same time, and use jQuery.noConflict() on pages that need the older version.

Q36. Let’s say you have a page with just one link on it. How can you change the anchor tag so it links to example.com?

  • $('a').attribute('href', 'http://www.example.com')
  • $('a').attr('href', 'http://www.example.com')
  • $('a').data('href', 'http://www.example.com')
  • $('a').href('http://www.example.com')

Q37. What does $() mean in jQuery?

  • It is an alias to the main core method of jQuery itself—the same as writing jQuery().
  • It is a utility function that selects the first element from the document.
  • It is a shorter way to write document.getElementById().
  • It is a utility function that selects the last element from the document.

Q38. Along with DOM traversal and manipulation, jQuery offers several general-purpose helper functions that fill in some JavaScript gaps, especially before ES2015. Which is NOT a jQuery utility function?

  • jQuery.each, a general purpose iterator for looping over arrays or objects
  • jQuery.isNumeric, which can check whether its argument is, or looks like, a number
  • jQuery.extend, which can merge objects and make complete deep copies of objects
  • jQuery.isMobile, which can tell whether the user is using a mobile browser

Q39. Given this set of checkboxes, how can you select the ones that have the phrase “sun” as part of the value?

<input type="checkbox" name="artists[]" value="sun-ra">
<input type="checkbox" name="artists[]" value="otis-redding">
<input type="checkbox" name="artists[]" value="captain-beefheart">
<input type="checkbox" name="artists[]" value="king-sunny-ade">
<input type="checkbox" name="artists[]" value="weather-report">
  • $('checkbox').val(/sun/);
  • $('input[value*="sun"]');
  • $('input[value|="sun"]');
  • $('input:checkbox').attr('value', '*sun*');

Q40. How can you get an AJAX request to go through without triggering any of jQuery’s AJAX events?

  • Set the type option to “none”.
  • Set the processData option to false.
  • Set a success callback that returns false.
  • Set the option “global” to false.

Q41. How do you change the current value of a text field with the class .form-item to “555-1212”?

  • $.val('.form-item', '555-1212');
  • $('.form-item').val('555-1212');
  • $('.form-item').data('value', '555-1212');
  • $('.form-item').set('value', '555-1212');

Q42. How would you fire a callback when any AJAX request on a page has completed?

  • $('body').ajaxComplete(function() { console.count('An AJAX request completed'); });
  • $(document).on('ajax-complete', function() { console.count('An AJAX request completed'); });
  • $('body').on('ajaxComplete', function() { console.count('An AJAX request completed'); });
  • $(document).ajaxComplete(function() { console.count('An AJAX request completed'); });

Q43. Given this set of checkboxes, how can you select the one with the value “blimp”?

<input type="checkbox" name="songs[]" value="satisfaction">
<input type="checkbox" name="songs[]" value="respect">
<input type="checkbox" name="songs[]" value="blimp">
<input type="checkbox" name="songs[]" value="saturn">
<input type="checkbox" name="songs[]" value="penguins">
  • $('input[value="blimp"]');
  • $('input[value!="blimp"]');
  • $('checkbox').val('blimp');
  • $('input:checkbox').attr('value', 'blimp');

Q44. Given this snippet of HTML and jQuery code, what does the jQuery do?

<ul class="menu">
  <li><a href="#" class="active">Home</a></li>
  <li><a href="#">Page 2</a></li>
<ul class="active submenu">
  <li><a href="#">Subpage 1</a></li>
  <li><a href="#">Subpage 2</a></li>
var m = $('.menu'), sm = $('.submenu');
m.css('font-weight', 'bold');
  • It makes all the menu items bold.
  • It throws an exception on line 3.
  • It makes the first set of menu items, not the second, bold.
  • It makes the second set of menu items, not the first, bold.

Q45. You want to take a block of type and animate it to a larger size with jQuery. The following HTML and JavaScript behaves strangely. What is the issue?

<div id="type" style="font: 1em/1.5 helvetica, arial, sans-serif; background: #ffc; padding: 0">
  Animate me!
  fontSize: '+=1em'
}, 3000);
  • jQuery does not support ems and will make the type 1 pixel larger instead of 1 em larger.
  • jQuery cannot override CSS in a style attribute, so the font size will not change.
  • The font size was set with a shorthand property, so jQuery will not animate the font size at all.
  • The font size was set with a shorthand property, so jQuery will start the animation from 0 instead of from 1 em.

Q46. When using the clone() function to duplicate an element, what is one of the main concerns your code needs to watch out for?

  • The clone() function may ignore data attributes on the original elements.
  • The clone() function may result in elements with duplicate ID attributes.
  • The clone() function may remove CSS classes from the cloned elements.
  • The clone() function may not respect the attribute order of the original elements.

Q47. When incorporating a plugin into a project, what are the important steps for basic installation and usage?

  • The jQuery script tag must come first, followed by the plugin, followed by your custom scripts, all preferably at or near the bottom of the page.
  • Your custom scripts must appear first in the document <head>, followed by jQuery, followed by the plugin.
  • The jQuery script tag and the plugin script tag must appear in the document <head>, and your custom scripts can follow anywhere on the page.
  • The jQuery script tag must appear in the document <head>, but the plugin and your custom scripts can appear anywhere else in any order.

Q48. These two script tags show different ways of using jQuery’s ready() method. What is true about both approaches?

  $(function() {
    // The rest of my code goes here

  jQuery(document).ready(function($) {
    // The rest of my code goes here
  • The code inside them can manipulate the DOM safely, knowing the browser has loaded it fully.
  • The code inside them can manipulate images on the page safely, knowing they have fully downloaded to the browser.
  • The code inside them will be run exactly once per user session.
  • The code inside them is not aware of the DOM.

Q49. Which property of the jQuery event object references the DOM object that dispatched an event?

  • self
  • target
  • object
  • source

Q50. Which describes how jQuery makes working with the DOM faster?

  • jQuery optimizes the DOM in a background thread, making updates faster.
  • jQuery avoids using the DOM at all.
  • jQuery uses a virtual DOM that batches updates, making inserts and deletes faster.
  • jQuery code to perform DOM manipulation is shorter and easier to write, but does not make DOM operations faster.

Q51. There are some issues with this snippet of jQuery. First, it is manipulating CSS directly, rather than manipulating classes and leaving the CSS in stylesheets. What else in this code is best to avoid?

$('.item').css('background-color', 'red');
// some other code here
var firstSubItem = $('.item').find('.sub-item').get(0);
// some other code here too
$('.item').parents('.navigation').css('font-weight', 'bold');
  • The .css() method accepts only an object, not two separate arguments. This will trigger an exception that should be caught.
  • The $('.item') selection is being made several times. This should be cached in a variable for (however slightly) better performance and easier maintainability.
  • The call to .parents() is in an inefficient place.
  • All the calls to $('.item') should be chained together as a single executable line for better performance.

Q52. Which choice is an example of statement chaining?

  • var $p = $('p'); console.log($p.length);
  • $('p').find('a').children('li');
  • $('p > a > li');
  • $('p'); $('a'); $('li');

Q53. How can you ensure that some code executes only when a class active appears on an element?

  • $('.element').attr('class', 'active')
  • $('.element').with('.active')
  • $('.element').hasClass('active')
  • $('.active').then()

Q54. jQuery has a main function for handling AJAX, and several shorthand function including load() that make calling that main function easier. Given this HTML snippet, how can you insert only the second snippet from the source.html file (div#one) into the #load-me div on-demand via AJAX?

<div id="load-me">
  This area will be replaced with AJAX loaded content.

<div id="one">
  <h1>First Piece</h1>

    Lorem ipsum duis maximus quam condimentum dolor eleifend scelerisque.

<div id="two">
  <h1>Second Piece</h1>

    Lorem ipsum proin facilisis augue in risus interdum ornare.
  • $('#load-me').get('source.html#one');
  • $('#load-me').get('source.html #one');
  • $('#load-me').load('source.html #one');
  • $('#load-me').load('source.html', '#one');

Q55. Given this HTML list and subsequent two lines of jQuery, what is the difference in the behavior of .closest() and .parents()?

<ul class="items" id="main-menu">
  <li>Item 1 <ul id="sub-menu">
  <li class="leaf">Sub Item 1</li>
  <li>Sub Item 2</li>
  • .closest() returns .leaf and #main-menu; .parents() returns #main-menu and #sub-menu.
  • .closest() returns .leaf and #sub-menu; .parents() returns #main-menu and #sub-menu.
  • .closest() returns only #main-menu; .parents() returns #main-menu and #sub-menu.
  • .closest() returns only #sub-menu; .parents() returns #main-menu and #sub-menu.

Q56. What does this line of code do?

$('ul > li:first-child');
  • selects the first list item inside all unordered lists on the page
  • selects the first list item inside the first unordered list on the page
  • selects the first element inside any list items on the page
  • creates a predefined CSS selector that can be reused later

Q57. Below is a list of items that you want to be clickable and an event handler function. How can you assign the event handler to every item in the list in a way that is most performant, and also that ensures that the handler is called even if more items are added to the list programmatically?

<ul class="clickable-list">
  <li>First Item</li>
  <li>Second Item</li>
  <li>Third Item</li>
  <li>Fourth Item</li>
  <li>Fifth Item</li>
function listResponder(evt) {
  console.log('You clicked a list item that says', evt.target.innerText);
  • $('.clickable-list).click(listResponder);
  • $('.clickable-list).on('click', 'li', listResponder);
  • $('.clickable-list).on('click, append', listResponder);
  • $('.clickable-list).each(function() { $(this).click(listResponder); });
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How the New Education Policy(NEP) is Going to Help in Future in India

What is National Education Policy (NEP)?The education sector is responsible for creating capable candidates who possess the ability to change the world and transform it for the better. The government comes up with new policies to improve the education sector. 

These policies provide a comprehensive framework for all institutions to follow. The need for these policies arose way back in the year 1968. These policies have been revised many times in the years. The first revision was in 1986. And the policies were then updated and revised in 1992. 

These policies were updated as per the need of the hour. Since then, the sector has seen many changes. The need for revision arose this year too. To match up with the changing world the government decided to update the policies. And make them more relevant and compelling for the education system of the country. 

Overview of National Education Policy (NEP)

The aim of these new policies introduced by the government is to formalize changes in the system from K-12 to university level. To focus better on the key concepts, ideas, applications, and problem-solving angles. 

Some new learning methods are introduced. Some innovative policies are introduced to focus primarily on secondary-level education. Let’s look at the policies.

National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) to develop National Curricular and Pedagogical Framework

National Curricular and Pedagogical Framework is a new change that will be developed by NCERT. This is for early care and education for children who are up to the age of 8. 

Introduction of coding from class 6

Scientific temper and mathematical thinking will now be a part of the school curriculum. Students can also take up coding from grade 6th. 

Board exams

After the implementation of this policy, the board exams will now be conducted in two parts. The two parts are objective and descriptive. These exams are specifically designed to improve the learning of the students, understanding of concepts, and promotion of knowledge. 

Instead of just memorizing. We can now see board exams be conducted in viable models like annual/semester/modular.

No separation of streams

After the implementation of this policy, there will be no hard separation on the basis of streams like science/commerce/humanities. There will also be no separation between co-curricular and extra-curricular areas. 

All the subjects will be the same for all students. And subjects like arts, music, yoga, sports, etc. will be a part of the curriculum.

The New Education Policy of 2020 will focus on creating a holistic and application-based system for the students. This is expected to pay special attention to skill development and making the students ready for the future. 

Main Focus of the New Education Policy

Focus on higher education 

A lot of reforms and new developments have been introduced by NEP that will benefit the higher education sector. These are some of the important policies introduced that will benefit the higher education sector. 

The single regulatory body for higher education 

The New Policy will now establish a Higher Education Commission of India. This will be a single regulatory body for all the education sectors in the country except for legal and medical education. 

Multiple entries and exit program

For the student who had to leave the course in the middle. Now there will be multiple entries and exit options. Their credits will be transferred via the Academic Bank of Credits. 

Adult learning programs through tech-based options and TV channels

This policy aims to bring quality technology options for adults learning. This will be achieved through apps, online courses, and modules, satellite-based TV channels, online books, the introduction of online libraries, and adult education centers. 

Availability of e-courses in regional languages

From now, technology will be used to educate students. It will be incorporated in all the modules like planning, teaching, learning, assessment, school, student training, etc. The content will also be available in regional languages for the benefit of the students. 

Foreign universities can set up their campus in the country

The top 100 universities of the world will be facilitated to operate in India under this new policy. These universities will be given special dispensation regarding regulatory, governance, and control norms. These factors will be on par with the autonomous institutions of the country. 

A common entrance exam for all colleges

All the higher institutes of the countries will now have a common entrance exam. That will be held by the National Testing Agency. 

What To expect from New Education Policy

This new policy is expected to bring positive change in the education sector of the country. This will have a long-lasting impact on the education system. Since the foreign universities are now allowed to set up their campus in the country. 

This initiative by the government encourages the students to complete their higher education in the country. The students can now experience global quality education and have a chance to reach the global bar without leaving the country. 

The introduction of multidisciplinary institutes will lead to a better focus on every field like arts and humanities. This will help the students to learn and grow. This new policy will enable students to focus on knowledge and learn instead of just memorizing.

The single common entrance exam is also a positive step taken by the government. It will reduce the stress of students. Also, eliminating the need of taking multiple competitive exams to take admission. 

It will ease the pressure on the students. It will also level the field for the various candidates appearing in the exams. The Academic Bank of Credit is a positive initiative to store the academic credits of the students. T

his will enable the students to earn points by completing a course and by completing higher education. The points the students will earn will be credited to the account. And the students can transfer their credits if they wish to switch colleges or universities. 

This also makes it easier for students to resume their studies if they had to drop out for some reason. This will not affect their score, and they can pick up from where they left.

The next steps

The new policy is focusing on increasing the gross enrollment ratio in the higher education system. This ratio is expected to rise. This ratio currently sits somewhere around 26%, a lot less when compared to other countries like North America, China, Brazil, etc. 

The introduction of stronger policies is needed to strengthen the education system of the country. 

Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and opening up  External Commercial Borrowing (ECB) can strengthen the capital pool of the government. 

The country needs a greater inflow of finance. This will help in attracting talented teachers, build better infrastructure, and take measures that will enable sourcing FDI and ECB.

This New Education Policy is a step in the right direction. But everything lies in the implementation of the policy. We just have to wait and see how this policy will benefit the students and the education system in real-time. 

Hopefully, the policy will bring a positive change, and students might reap benefits from the new and improved education system in the future. 

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Change in Working Culture – New Normal

The coronavirus outbreaks threw the world into chaos. It not only affected the health and economy. But it also revolutionized the workplace and offices. The definition of normal has changed, and we are living amid the new norms. 

Homes have become our new office, and social media is the medium to stay in touch. But what are the new norms, and what does it look like? After covid 19 we might see some of these changes in the workplace.

Changes in the Workplace after Covid 19

Increased Hygiene Standards Among Offices

Offices always practiced cleanliness and hygiene, but the virus outbreak highlighted this issue and made them take precautions to build a safe working environment for the employees. This pandemic has raised the bar for hygiene standards. 

Companies are expected to follow these safety standards in the future. Many offices installed new technology like automatic open-doors and the installation of hand sanitizers in every nook and corner of the office, putting barriers between workstations to prevent the spreading airborne virus. 

Regular temperature recordings and encouraging employees to work from home if they don’t feel well. Social distancing measures would be practiced in the workplace. Shaking hands and other skin-to-skin contacts would be avoided. 

Many workplaces are only calling a small group of employees every day. They are adopting office shifting algorithms to reduce the number of employees in the office. And decrease the chances of virus spreading. 

A mix of Virtual and In-office work

When the lockdown was imposed around the world. Most employees were working remotely. But the remote work option is not going to be around forever. Employees will have to start attending the office eventually. The office environment is essential to make the collaboration process easier for the employees. 

Even though Covid 19 has opened a world of possibilities for employees and employers. They are adopting a mix of both remote and in-office work to contain the virus and keep the projects on time. 

Employees are equipped to work from home by telecommuting and using online methods. And they are called to the office in small groups when the need arises. This offers flexibility to the employees and doesn’t affect their careers. This is one of the most common changes you can see among the offices after covid 19 breakouts. 

Improvement in Crisis Preparation Plans

In the beginning, when the virus broke out. There was a panic among the employees and employers. Their lack of preparation for a crisis like this was the key reason behind this panic. The employers weren’t able to manage the crisis in the initial stage, and they saw many of their employees getting affected and catching the virus. 

This opened their eyes and made them adopt methods to prevent a case like this in the future. Companies all over the world are now taking preventative measures. And improving their crisis management plans for the future. They are adopting these measures, so if anything like this happens in the future. 

It won’t affect the productivity or the working of the company. And they can easily adapt to the situation and keep their business running smoothly.  

Offering Digital Alternatives to Some Employees

The pandemic made the companies rethink their on-site operations. Yes, the companies prefer to keep the business under one roof. So, they can keep tabs on it and check the quality of the work.

 But when the companies were forced to ask their employees to work remotely, it created a new way. The recruitment process changed. Video-conferencing and online tests were employed to assess the ability of a candidate

And now, many companies are hiring remote employees for the operations that can be done digitally. This will improve the adaptability of the company. 

Small and Flexible Leases

Many companies paid the rents of their offices even though space was abandoned for months. This increased unnecessary burden on the owners, and as a result, they will now look for flexible leases. 

The 5-10 years leases will be avoided by the companies to attain flexibility. In the relationship between the tenant and owner, the owner always had an upper hand. But this move will shift that paradigm and make the two parties equal by mutually benefitting both of them. 

Benefits of New Normal

Greater Flexibility for Employees

All the employees around the world were forced to adapt to remote working when the pandemic broke out. Yes, the collaboration of the office took a serious hit, but this gave all the employees a chance to step up and showcase their skills to their employees. 

The companies also got a chance to see that even if their employees are not present in the offices. They can still work responsibly, meet all the deadlines and keep up with the required pace. This brought a much-needed change in almost every industry. 

The companies will start to trust their employees and even when the pandemic is over. They will still allow their employees to work remotely for a few days if need be. This flexibility can prove to be beneficial for the employees. 

Better focus on Employees Wellness

Health and wellness were the priority when the coronavirus broke out. It also made the companies focus on their employee’s health as well. The pandemic was not just a threat to physical health. But the isolation that came with it was equally harsh on the mental health of the employees. 

It made the companies offer more support and health benefits to their employees. The increase in the support and benefits offered by companies is a part of the new normal. This focus on the health of employees was long overdue. And now companies are understanding the importance of the support. 

This trend will continue to be adopted by organizations all over the world. So, the employees can expect many emotional and physical benefits from this new post covid era

How to Prepare for the New-normal

Create a Work-Life Balance

Finding that perfect balance in work and personal life can be a challenge. The routines were disrupted when the covid hit. Where the employees used to get up, get ready, and head to work. Now, they get up, get ready, switch on their devices and start working from home. 

When you are working from home, it is easier to get carried away and stay up late working and finishing projects. Personal life can take a toll amid the hectic routine. So make sure you make clear boundaries between work and personal life. Set a routine and stick to it. 

Track Time to Manage the Routine Better

To make sure you keep your work and personal life separate. We would suggest keeping a time log or tracker. Maintain your log for a week, and then you will have a habit of keeping it. This will help you organize your time better by keeping the track of activities you do in a day.

 When you have a time tracker you can have a look at it and analyze where you are spending extra time and come up with ways to save time. 

Make Time for Yourself 

Keeping yourself positive amid the pandemic was the hardest thing to do. The death toll rising and more and more people getting infected every day was bringing sadness and worries to mind. Staying motivated at this time was a hard task. 

Many people suffered from depression because of trying circumstances. To feel a little better and keep your head high. Many studies suggested making some time for yourself. Indulging in any favorite activity like watching a TV show or reading a book can work wonders. 

It can bring back the sense of control, distract from the constant bad news around and help you feel a little better about the situation. 


These are hard times, and everyone is trying to adjust to this new normal. The constant effort it needs can make you feel overwhelmed in such situations. One way to deal with this feeling is to communicate with friends, family members, or co-workers. 

The isolation can make this troublesome time even harder. So stay in touch with people and if you are going through a hard phase, then discuss it with your close relatives or friends. Chances are they might be going through a similar situation. 

Together you can help each other and provide a new perspective on the situation. Making it easier to handle and cope with it. 


The world faced an unexpected threat, and it revolutionized the world. People started taking their emotional and physical health seriously. Companies started offering support to their employees, and the world was working from home. We saw the world change in front of us. We experienced and became a part of the transition. 

Adjusting to this new normal can be tough. But we have to keep in mind that all of us are navigating through this new world. And if we don’t believe it, some people are willing to help us. It might take some time to fully catch up with the new ways of life. But keep in mind that it is a work in progress for all of us. 

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How OCR Technology Helpful in Content Writing Career

Writing career leaves no stone unturned to amaze the masses. The business of writing is one of the most splendid ones. Take your writing business to the optimum heights with the use of appropriate technologies.

Effective and creative writing has the magical power to drive lots of traffic to the website. Many writers feel it tough to pursue their writing career because they do not find the proper time to do so.

Managing it is surely a bit challenging, but appropriate tips can help you excel. You are not alone in your writing career. But various online tools will assist, support, and help you out in your writing journey.

Please get to know how OCR technology is winning the hearts of writers with excellent help in their writing career.

Modern OCR Technology:

The advanced OCR technology helps you to facilitate your writing career. It stands for optical character reader or optical character recognition. As the name indicates, it is one of the modern technologies that can convert image to text. It can recognize the text in the image and then analyze it thoroughly.

Afterward, it ensures to convert this image text into written text. You can make the best use of this text for your blog posts or website posts.

It is the massive facility that makes it convenient for writers to update their sites immediately. It is an automatic and electronic method to generate an image to the text within no time. It scans your document within a few seconds.

Avoids Manual Typing:

You do not need to hire someone to type the content of the image into text. Image-to-text is the online tool which completely addresses the issue of hiring typist for this. Give a boost to your writing career with the help of this marvelous technology.

It supports images from multiple platforms and especially from PDF for text conversion. The salient feature of using the reliable and durable image to text tool is accuracy. These offer content with optimum accuracy.

The chances of error minimize when you use the most popular and trendy online tool. Managing paperwork is quite fabulous and easy through the use of this brilliant technology. It offers quick results as compared to manual typing.

In manual typing, there are optimum chances of eye strain and energy drainage. You have to spend money on hiring a typist for shifting all paperwork to text. The wise content writers aim to save more with the use of the automatic image to text conversion.

Time-Saving Approach:

Manual typing is massively time-consuming, and it demands lots of careful work for several hours. Content writers can ensure to update their websites at the proper time using the image to text tool. It keeps on providing them content quickly which they can publish on their website.

In this way, you can upload the whole of the book with several chapters. You may even upload the whole coursework or poetry to your website.

Similarly, if you are working on the cooking website, you can shift all your recipes from paperwork to the website’s textual content in seconds.

It will avoid your extra efforts. When you have a special notebook for exciting recipes, then click the images of it. Keep on uploading the recipes after image to text conversion. Now, publish it for updating your blog.

Multilingual Conversion:

Amaze the writing market with your splendid tactics and use of technology! A few years back, there was no concept of the image-to-text conversion. The OCR technology came up in the market with extreme benefits for the writers.

They can use this technology for converting the image content to text content in their desired language. Not only this, they can upload the content in multiple languages on their website. OCR software does not take much to convert it into Portuguese, English, Espanol, or any other language.

The reliable and durable image to text tool will not let you get stuck at any point. The images with low resolution are not any hurdle in extracting the text from it.

The perfect and competitive online tool lets you instantly have the text even from the low-resolution pictures. Due to this, it gained a special place in finance, e-commerce, education, blogging, and many other businesses.

High-Quality Scanning:

Image to text technology helps the writers in one way or the other. It quickly scans the images and provides the text of it. It can even scan the invoices and convert them into digital formats. You can keep the record safe for you with super ease.

OCR technology helps writers in their writing career with quality outcomes. It scans images of printed text, handwritten text invoices, results, and many more.

The resultant obtained have the text with proper alignment and wording. It is free from grammatical issues, and you can have a glance at these issues with proofreading. The online tool does not disappoint you at all as it offers the content after best scanning.

Image to Text

When it comes to a writing career, you need to task the assistance of various SEO tools. Various online tools help in taking your writing career to the top. Firm your roots firmly in the writing career and move towards the right direction for gaining success.

Image to text tool  is one of the most frequently used and likeable tools. Using it is fabulously easy. You need to open the website on your browser and then paste the image into it.

You can choose either to upload the picture or paste its URL into the online tool. Both facilities are available for the user. Not click on the button “Submit,” and you are all done. It functions well through the extraction of text from these images.

It can extract text from any file format you share in it. The most supportive and compatible image formats for this OCR tool are TIFF, JPEG, GIF, BMP, JPG, and PNG. The best feature of this online tool is that it supports multiple languages too.

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Trending Career Options 2021

With the coronavirus outbreak and the world locked up in their homes. No one can deny that with the pandemic and lockdown, 2020 was a challenging year. The world struggled both in terms of health and economic conditions. But then, 2021 came, and every new year brings new opportunities. 

Every sector was struggling to find a footing in 2020, and the employment opportunities declined sharply. Some employees lost their jobs, and some had to take heavy salary cuts to survive in the pandemic. Ever since 2021 arrived, the opportunities have picked up. 

In this article, we have listed some sectors that are the new trends of 2021. All these sectors are expected to grow in the upcoming years. These sectors are expected to offer employment opportunities. And the candidates who are looking to build a career, these sectors would offer the most growth. 

Software Developement

Software developers are responsible for designing and writing the software. This software runs on computers, laptops, and phones, some developers create specific applications that perform only one kind of task. And some developers work on the operating system that is used by devices and networks. 

Software developers have a dynamic job. Understanding the requirement of the users is in the job profile. Design and test their software according to their needs. They are also responsible for making necessary updates and fixing all the bugs in the app. They create, maintain, and document software to ensure its proper functioning.

Work Environment– Software developers work on creating, maintaining, and upgrading the software. They complete most of their work on laptops. The developers sit on their desks all day and perform their tasks via desktop, or laptop. They often work in teams and are associated with a company. Although some developers work as freelancers. Most of the full-time developers work overtime to complete their projects on time. 

Education Qualifications Required– Software developers are expected to have a bachelor’s degree in computer science or any other field that has a similar course like software engineering. Although a bachelor’s degree is sufficient, some employers ask for a master’s degree. A proven experience and strong skills in computer programming can work as an added advantage. Many programmers complete an internship program before taking on a full-time job. This gives them the needed experience and gives a boost to their career. Being a developer means becoming a student for life. As the developers have to stay up to date with the latest trends in the industry. 

Earning Potential– Pay Scale suggests that the salary of an average software developer in India is ₹497,978  annually. The salary might fluctuate based on the skills and experience of the candidate. 

Growth– Software development is a vast field. The industry is growing, and more and more business owners are switching to the online market. And they are looking to get an app or website developed for their business. They directly influence the employment opportunities in this sector. Studies predict that the sector will grow by 22% this year and will add more jobs to the market. 

Medical and Health Services Manager

The healthcare sector is huge. And owing to the coronavirus outbreak, the sector is expected to grow. Providing care to patients is only a small part of the industry. The sector has other elements too like scheduling appointments of patients, collecting payments, keeping medical records of the patients, and coordinating with the healthcare providers. The managers oversee all the activities and give extra time to health care providers to care for the patients. 

Work Environment– The healthcare sector is huge, and the managers work under different groups to provide their services to the sector. There are many health care settings across the country including, hospitals, clinics, and even nursing homes. Healthcare managers work across all the different settings and provide services under one roof. 

Education Qualifications Required– to get a job as a medical or health service provider, the candidates will need a bachelor’s degree in health administration or health management. An experience in this field will increase your chances of getting selected. Many candidates also opt for a master’s degree and work under the supervision of an actual health care setting to gain experience in the field and increase their chances of getting hired. 

Earning Potential– As per Pay scale, the average salary of a medical and health services manager is ₹550,000 annually. This salary was hiked in the virus outbreak, but the situation is getting back to normal. The salary hike is reducing. 

Growth– amid the pandemic, the employment opportunities in these sectors rose exponentially. But even after the situation is under control now. Growth is still expected in this sector. It is expected that this sector will see a 32% growth in the upcoming years. 

Post-secondary Teacher

Any teacher working with the students after the high-school level is a post-secondary teacher. These teachers are capable of teaching any subject. But the studies suggest that the demand is rising particularly for health, business, and nursing teachers. In addition to teaching the students different subjects. These teachers also conduct research, publish books and papers. They also help the students choose a career option or their field of higher studies. 

Work Environment– These teachers commonly work in public and private colleges, universities, community, or junior colleges of professional schools. These teachers can hold full-time jobs in a specific field of study and hold classes on the side as well. While other teachers often work in part-time jobs and teach at multiple institutions at the same time. 

Education Qualifications Required– Most of the teachers in this profession hold a Ph.D. in the specific field they offer to teach. The path to a doctoral degree is energy and time-consuming, but it is a requirement to make a career in the field. However, some colleges and institutions accept candidates with a master’s degree in their field. But a proven work experience in their area of expertise is required to get the job. 

Earning Potential– According to Payscale, the average salary for a post-secondary teacher is ₹479,323 annually. This salary is an estimation, and the real salary of the candidate will depend on their skills. The subject they teach has a large influence on their salary too. 

Growth– The candidates are looking to polish their skills after school. The demand for a post-secondary teacher is rising. This field is expected to grow around 9% in the upcoming years. 

Nurse Practitioner

This type of nurse has more experience and training as compared to a registered nurse. A nurse practitioner can perform various doctor functions independently. They don’t just assist doctors, but they are adept at handling most of the doctor’s functions. After the recent pandemic where the sword saw a shortage of doctors and other health workers. This field is on the rise. A nurse practitioner can deal with the patient without a doctor. They can diagnose the illness, prescribe medications and care for a patient. 

Work Environment– Nurse practitioners are part of the healthcare system. They commonly work in hospitals, clinics, emergency rooms, care centers, and nursing homes. Many schools and universities have a nurse practitioner on campus to deal with common issues of the students. 

Education Qualifications Required– To make a career as a nurse practitioner. The candidate must have a license as a registered nurse. The candidate must have a bachelor’s or similar degree in nursing. Also, candidates have to complete a graduate program. And work towards advanced clinical training, and get certified as a nurse practitioner. 

Earning Potential– According to recent studies, there is a rise in demand for nurse practitioners. The average salary of a nurse practitioner is ₹450,000 annually. And this amount can fluctuate depending on the hospitals and cities a candidate is in. 

Growth– The market for nurse practitioners saw a spike in demand in 2020, after the coronavirus breakout. But even after the situation is getting under control. This sector is still expected to grow. Studies suggest that this sector will see a whopping 45% growth in the upcoming years. And will be responsible for numerous job openings. 

Financial Manager 

Every company, be it a small-scale company or a fortune 500 company, financial managers are required to take care of their accounts and money. Where owners of the small companies manage it themselves. Large corporations hire financial managers to keep account of the company’s income and expenses. Financial managers create financial reports, manage investments, and help the organization achieve its long-term financial goals.

Work Environment– Financial managers can be hired in any company. They can work in businesses, non-profits organizations, government sectors, etc, financial managers work closely with the top executives and gather data from every department. These managers can work full-time or part-time depending on the need of the company. 

Education Qualifications Required– to make a career as a financial manager. The candidate will need a degree in finance, accounting, economics, or business administration. Some companies ask for a master’s degree in these fields. A relevant work experience in finance like accounting, sales, or banking can increase your chances of getting selected. 

Earning Potential– As per Payscale, the average salary of a financial manager is ₹879,850 annually. This salary keeps fluctuating with the demand in the market. 

Growth– studies suggest that this sector is expected to grow 15% by the year 2029. And it will add numerous jobs in the market. 

Final Word

All the careers listed above are some of the trending choices in 2021. They offer growth, and due to being in trend, they are adding new employment opportunities to the market. Even though these are trending careers, that doesn’t mean other options are not available. If you are looking for a career opportunity that will help you grow in the industry, then you give a shot to these sectors. We have listed the educational qualifications you will need to make a career in these fields. And the average salary you can expect. If you are looking for a field to kick start your professional career, then assess your skills and your qualifications and go for the field that appeals to you the most. 

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Sectors that experienced Positive Impacts of Covid in terms of Employment

The corona virus outbreak not only affected people’s health but also affected the economy of the world majorly. The rapid spread of the virus had a serious implication on the international economy. 

Many industries suffered the heavy blow of virus-like travel, hospitality, and retail. In the midst of all the negative impact, this virus had on some industries. Some industries stayed unaffected by the pandemic.  

The beginning of 2020, was hard in every country. It was a bleak time for the international economy. The pandemic seized normal operations, and the waves of the cases were rising exponentially. 

The fear of catching, and spreading the virus was huge among the citizens, and everyone did efforts on their part to keep themselves and everyone safe. Even if it means staying in the house for the coming months. Business all around the world suffered. 

Employers had to make tough decisions about their staff members, and some businesses even struggled to stay afloat in the pandemic. 

The pandemic was a hard time for the businesses. Many had to let their employees go to cut the cost, and many are closed forever. Numerous employees lost their jobs in the recent covid layoffs, and the unemployment rate surged high. 

Moneywise suggests that travel, tourism, hospitality, global shipping and transportation, automobile, entertainment, and clothes were some of the sectors that were hit the hardest. 

In these times of chaos, where businesses were closing, people lost their jobs, and all of us fear the virus. No wonder we are living in a time of utmost distress and confusion. 

But, not everyone is in the same boat. 

Where many industries were hit with the blow that is the corona virus. We went ahead and assumed the worst. That all the businesses will suffer losses and the world economy will tank. But, the reality is where some industries were suffering. Some were untouched from the corona virus wave. These industries not just managed to stay afloat but expanded in the pandemic. These industries were the ones that were hiring employees because of the rise in demand they were facing due to the virus breakout.

In this article, we will look at some industries that not only remained untouched from the pandemic but managed to gain in this chaotic time. Some industries like e-commerce, pharmaceuticals escaped the negative economic effect of the pandemic but gained from this time. 

Other industries have now managed to find their footing and deal with the impact of the pandemic. But everyone is asking one question “why didn’t corona virus impact certain industries?” and today we will try to answer that question in depth.

Here we will look at the industries that experienced a positive impact during corona virus and why?


Since the pandemic, the schools were closed to keep the kids safe from the deadly effect of the virus. The schools opted for new ways to teach their kids. Online classes and e-learning became the new normal. And when parents noticed that kids can study via online methods. They enrolled their kids in other e-learning classes benefiting the ed-tech industry.

Platforms providing opportunities to learn online saw exponential growth. Companies like Byju’s enjoyed a monopoly in the market. It also gave rise to employment opportunities in the sector. Many candidates were hired for different roles in the midst of pandemic.

Healthcare and Pharmaceuticals

The Healthcare sector benefited from the outbreak of coronavirus. People were worried about their health, and governments were looking for medicines that will help boost the immunity of the patients affected by the virus. 

Many pharmaceutical companies started marketing their products that will provide immunity and shield from the virus, and numerous customers bought these products benefiting the healthcare sector. The hospitals and the manufacturing units also hired new employees, opening the employment opportunity for the candidates.

The shares of the healthcare and pharma companies also gained momentum when the trial for the corona virus vaccine began. During the pandemic, the demand for other medicines and healthcare products also rose. This was directly linked to the employment opportunities in the healthcare industries. 

The rise in demand increased the stock value of the company’s shares. Which in turn leads them to hire more employees. Despite heavy fluctuations in the pharmaceutical industry, it is predicted that this sector will enjoy economic growth for a while now. 

Consumer Goods

The corona virus outbreak and the lock-down that was imposed to contain it threw people in panic. The result of the lock-down was panic-buying. People feared the shortage of goods and stocked up on food products like canned items, pasta, bread, and other household items like toilet paper, and even hand sanitiser. The industry needed help to cater to the needs of all the buyers. Hence more employment opportunities for the young and talented. 

Since the WHO issued that keeping hands and houses clean. The demand for cleaning supplies along with household goods also increased. The companies that sold disinfectants and cleaning products saw a boost in consumer demand and stock value. 

Despite the global pandemic and recession in the economy, people didn’t hold back on spending money on essential products like food and cleaning supplies. And to fulfil the need of a large number of people this sector employed new candidates. 


The virus outbreak was responsible for the closing of the physical stores due to the fear of spreading and contracting the virus. The consumers who needed products had to turn online to purchase products. 

Due to people switching online to shop for their necessities, online retail sites gained momentum, which benefited the online market. Even the companies delivering food online and delivery services were increased in popularity too. 

Big sites like Amazon enjoyed the surge in consumer demand. And they employed talented young individuals because of the heavy load. It was selling vital items across various sectors like food, cleaning supplies, and essential items of the house. 

Amazon was described as the “best operator and best positioned”. With the current situation, the stock of the E-commerce sector is predicted to increase. The demand for online retail services and employment opportunities is said to rise following the outbreak of the virus. 

Home Entertainment and Social Media platforms

Ever since the outbreak of corona virus, all the countries in the world imposed a lock-down to prevent the spreading of the virus. Social distancing and self-isolation became the way of life. And when people were bored stuck in their homes for months. 

They turned to home entertainment to pass their time. Streaming services like Netflix and Amazon Prime reported exponential growth in terms of subscriptions. People subscribed to these services and indulged in movies and TV shows while they were in isolation. 

The business of these services grew to such an extent. That Netflix announced an extension for Google Chrome, known as Netflix Party. This allowed people to host virtual movie nights and watch their favorite movies and TV shows remotely with their friends. 

Social Networking sites such as Facebook and Instagram were not so far behind in the pandemic. These sites also see a surge in usage, as it allowed people to stay in touch with their connections without stepping out. This rise in demand directly influenced the employment market. The demand for capable employees rose in this sector too. 

Following the lock-down, all fitness centers and gyms were close too. This increased the demand for fitness apps and gear. People were opting to work out at home, and they invested their resources in buying fitness gear and equipment for their homes. 

The employment opportunities for developers increase too. As they were responsible to keep the app bug-free increased too. The companies selling these products saw a rise in value and employed more help keep the apps running. 

Work from home became the new normal amid lockdown. This gave rise to new trends in video conferencing. Business meetings and conferences were moved online, and the apps like Zoom saw a surge in their stock values. It is reported that Zoom enjoyed an 11% rise in shares. 

All the companies offering home entertainment or remote conferencing enjoyed a boom because of the corona-virus. People wanted to stay entertained and in contact with their friends and family members. 

This increased the demand for such sites and services, directly influencing the employment opportunities in these sectors. These companies are expected to enjoy a rise in demand until the situation goes back to normal. 

Take-out Restaurants

Food is a basic requirement. Covid or no Covid, people will always spend money on food. But the lockdown took away the dining experience of various people. This doesn’t mean that they will give up their favourite pizzas and burgers. 

Restaurant owners had to face the blow of corona virus in the beginning. But soon, by keeping in mind good safety measures for employees and the public. They started offering takeout by employing more delivery men.

FinTech Industry

With WHO recommending people to avoid cash payments, instead, opt for contactless payment methods. The Fintech industry continues to boom. Most physical stores remain closed in the pandemic, and the traffic soon shifted to online shopping for their needs.

And online sales are directly linked to online payments. The fin-tech industry saw exponential growth, ever since the world was advised to stay into lockdown. This gave rise to various employment opportunities and was one of the sectors that saw a positive impact of covid. Trading Plateform are aslo growing rapidaly.


Amid the lockdown, we saw the companies suffer to find a solid footing. Many businesses were closed, and numerous employees lost their jobs. But where most of the world was struggling to adjust to the new normal. Some sectors were enjoying growth. 

The situation has improved now, and employment opportunities are rising in every sector. The businesses learned a lot from this outbreak. They started paying attention to the employee’s health and well-being and started valuing them more. It also gave rise to some new sectors that provide new employment opportunities and growth to the world. 

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Ed Tech(Educational Technologies) trends in 2021 and future

We are often told that change is the only constant. And you get to experience it multiple times in your life. Everything has changed since the beginning. Just take a look at current industries, be it automobile or even IT. 

Every sector has evolved since it was first started. I mean, just look at the means of communication, we used to write letters and now, all of us own mobile phones and can connect with anyone from all over the world. 

Many people claim that currently, we are in the middle of the fourth industrial revolution. Ye, we see technology change at an enormous rate, and it affects all of our lives drastically.

The introduction of the world wide web and the change it has brought have transformed the world. Every aspect of our lives has evolved unrecognizably, and it is for the best. From our economies to the supply of goods, everything has evolved. 

We now pay with UPI and book taxis on our phones. The electric car has become the future, and it is safe to say that we have come a long easy from bullock carts. Change can be seen in every sector. But the one sector that not only has evolved but is responsible for affecting every other sector is the education sector. 

If you pay attention to it, you will see that the factor responsible for all the transformations we see in the current world was because of extensive research and study. So, the pivotal changes that have directly influenced the other sectors are the education sector. 

Our classrooms and modes of teaching continue to upgrade and evolve with every passing year. They keep up with the technological advancements and use the new trends in technology to make learning more fun and engaging. Everything has seen progress from the subject matter to how things operate in the actual classroom. 

The educational sector has reported positive and exponential changes in every part of the world. From primary education to the university level, every tier has been incorporating new methods and techniques in teaching. 

Even the studying material is being updated regularly to match up with the current trends. Colleges now offer professional degrees in more fields. That makes it easier for the students to pursue their goals and get professionally trained by the best in class methods and faculty. 

With the fierce competition in the industry, it is imperative to change the way we prepare the candidates. The study material and the teaching methods should be tailor according to the needs of the industry. The education sector is evolving with each passing year, and in this article, we have listed the current changes that we saw take place in 2021. 

1. Upskilling technology across domains

People often pity the technology and human labor against each other. We see the trend where choosing one can result in neglecting the other. We use the technology to replace humans. But the original purpose of technology is to support humans, help them work optimally, and give the best results. 

Using the two in sync can result in optimum results. Once, the fear of technology is eliminated. The focus can shift on using the two together and enhance the level of the educational sector.

Upskilling technology has emerged as one of the top technological trends in 2021. Industries are heading towards workflow automation, and the human interface is important for a smooth workflow. 

Therefore the businesses are adopting cloud convergence, to help the candidates build cloud-based technological skills. These skills help the candidates become tech-savvy and increase the chances of their employment. 

Cloud-related technology training programs are increasingly adopted by the latest institutions. These programs exist to help the candidates match up with the expectation of employers. These programs are becoming increasingly popular in both online educational courses and campus-based institutions. 

Many online institutions are launching their services to help the candidates learn through their effective courses. The candidates can learn not only machine learning but also the effective deployment of using cloud infrastructure. 

These courses exist to help the learners access resources and a competent faculty. And master the skills that are high in demand and can help them land their desired job. 

2. Polishing of soft skills via curriculum

Along with the subject-based learning, and skills oriented learning methods. The institutions began using methods to polish and build the aptitude around cognitive skills like problem-solving, logical reasoning, and management. 

Their application and curriculum are emphasizing on these abilities as these abilities are an integral part to stand out among the competition. Their syllabus is built in a way that focuses on facts and theoretical knowledge but also incorporates real-life scenarios that can prove helpful in professional life. 

Now students are being encouraged to focus on other skills as well. Like, leadership skills, team-building skills, communication skills. Some real-life scenarios are applied in the classroom to prepare the students to deal with real-time problems. These methods are imbued in students via offline and online classes. 

This is a much-needed change in the education sector. This not only helps the students gain theoretical knowledge and develop their skills. But also enable them to navigate around the professional world. This gives them a needed confidence boost and turns them into capable and desirable candidates who are preferred by the companies. 

3. Emphasis on Innovation 

Attention to detail and innovation is vital in today’s world. Innovation has become essential in every sector. From linguists to artificial intelligence, the sheer amount of choices available today enables the candidates to pursue their dream. 

Now they can get professionally trained in their preferred sector and gain the skills and knowledge to make a career in their field. The vast amount of choices available is one of the largest trends we see in 2021. 

Memorizing was a thing of the past. Now the students learn by doing. The assessment module and course structure are designed in a way to help the student slean practically. They are made to understand the merits of a study. 

The candidates are now encouraged to choose what they are interested in, mainstream subjects and studies are not forced upon the candidates. The obsession with engineering, medicine, or even law is diminishing, and new opportunities are suggested to help the candidates choose a path that excites them. 

Newer fields and specializations have made a way for aspiring candidates, and the scope in these fields is enormous. 

4. Personalization of learning space

This trend is the most welcoming, and it’s about time that we understand the phrase “every kid is unique”, and so are their learning patterns. Formerly, the personalized learning methods were only seen in specialized schools and institutions. But now more and more learning institutions are opting for this trend and helping the specially-abled students learn alongside normal students.

To overcome the bias against specially-abled students, this is an important step. This trend will allow these students to learn in a similar environment as other students and open up the world of possibilities for them. 

These students can now enroll in prestigious institutions for higher studies and reach out and achieve either dream. Who knows, maybe we will see more geniuses like Stephen Hawking. This inclusion can be the largest trend of 2021.

5. Open Learning Platforms

One of the latest trends of 2021, is the rise in open learning platforms like Open Colleges. These open spaces help make the learning methods more convenient for students. The students can access all the course materials in one place, submit their assignments online and even check their grades. 

This space is easy to use and makes it convenient for students to learn and access information. And in times like these, where we are in the middle of a pandemic. This trend is a welcoming one and much-needed.

6. Rise in Automated Schools

With the rise in technology, schools rely on online assessment systems, to make it convenient for students and even parents to access the assignments online. In addition to the online assessment system. 

Automated attendance is also a rising trend among schools. Schools use facial recognition to ensure attendance and even use automation for other administrative tasks. When the students interact with online technologies, their digital footprint can be traced and used to make learning modules. The teachers and instructors can focus on the learning.  

7. Adaptive Learning

Personalized learning programs can help the student learn at their own pace, and the teacher can tailor the information as per the students’ requirements. With personalized and adaptive learning, teachers can create learning experiences that are engaging and personalized. This is a meaningful approach to education, and all the students get the necessary attention and can perform better in academics. 


The educational trends in 2021, lean towards technological transformation and the introduction of digital channels in classrooms and teaching methods. The education sector has a lot of potential. This sector offers a lot to a diverse audience. The changes in this sector directly reflect on the other sectors. 

Creating capable candidates who can bring change to the world is the responsibility of the education sector. The more opportunities provided in the education sector will broaden the field in the rest of the world. Trends like personalized learning, and enabling students to learn openly are some of the long-overdue changes. These will result in benefits in upcoming years. 

The availability of upskilling courses for all professions will help the candidates learn and polish their skills. And become a capable candidate that will be preferred by the companies. Many portals offer professional courses for aspiring candidates. 

They can enroll and learn at their convenience. There is no end to learning. We keep learning and evolving. Even though we are not actually in education, we can still learn. These trends do not just affect the education sector but all of us. Let’s welcome them and hope for even better trends in upcoming years. 

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Career in the Field of Virtual Reality And Augmented Reality

Before actually going through with it, it is important to understand the difference between virtual and augmented reality. People often use these two terms synonymously, but there is a difference between the two. The role of a VR developer and an AR developer is different. 

Where a VR developer creates a new digital environment that can be seen by people through a device like an Oculus headset. An AR developer creates only a layer of digital experience in the existing reality with the help of mobile apps. Some examples of AR reality is a game called Pokemon Go.

Just like the video games industry, other industries are also taking advantage of the AR/VR technology. Some museums are also incorporating this technology to increase the user experience of their visitors. 

AR is most commonly used in most museums to give information about the art pieces to their visitors. The art can be scanned through mobile phones, and visitors can get information about that piece. Some other museums use this technology to display how the pictures and the displayed architecture looked like in the past. 

Whereas VR is used to attend online training classes. The students can have a realistic experience of the surgeries and medical treatments even when they are not physically present in the classroom. If you are looking to build a career in the field of virtual reality and augmented reality, then this guide can help. We have covered everything from how to get started to how to stand apart. Read on to know more about the same. 

How to Get Started in the industry


There is no specific course or degree for VR or AR. So the candidates usually get education from online courses and coding camps. The basic requirement to make a career in this field is the knowledge of coding. The candidates who know how to program software that drives AR/VR experience are ideal candidates in this field.

Along with the knowledge of programming software driving AR/VR results. If the candidate has a bachelor’s degree in computer science, it is considered an added advantage. 

Skills Required

To make a successful career as an AR/VR developer. The candidate must be able to work with video game engines. Being able to work on platforms like Unity or Unreal allows the candidates to recreate environments in 3D. A deep understanding of coding languages like C++, C, java script is also a must. 

An AR/VR developer is responsible for developing, maintaining, and upgrading the software. The more experienced the developer is the more preference they will get when applying for the job. An experienced developer can recreate 3D environments and also oversee the work of other developers. 

Soft Skills Required

The ability to code and recreate 3D environments will get you the job. But to sustain it, you must be people-oriented too. Even though it is a tech job, skills with people are still a huge requirement. Polishing your soft skills will increase your chances of getting selected for the job. 

Soft skills like logical thinking, problem-solving, and effective communications are some of the skills that will make you stand out from other candidates and increase your chances of getting the job. Companies often look for talented individuals who can work independently in a dynamic environment.  

How to Kickstart your career in AR/VR

Finally, we are onto the real stuff, when you have the right education and skills. Then it is time to start looking for ways on how to get started in this field. In this section, we will discuss what steps the candidates have to take to getting started in the AR/VR field. 

The first step is an obvious one, start reaching out to the existing companies and look for opportunities. Mark your interest in the job and make sure to let the companies know that you are available. If you have someone to guide you, then ask them what the companies look for in a candidate, and if they have any advice to offer. Ask them for tips on how to stand out, and what would get you hired?

Build your network on various platforms and reach out to professionals who are already working in the industry, gain insight into what would help you stand out, and ask them if you can shadow them for one day. In addition to this, you can also reach out to the human resources department at the company you are interested in. you can ask them if they have any projects that they are hiring for, and you can showcase your knowledge of the subject and your skills first hand to the people you want to impress. 

You can look for an internship to gain experience in the industry. Look for internships in established companies and polish your skills before applying for a full-time job. Although most internships are unpaid and the ones that are paid, pay only a small amount. But they have other benefits. Working in a company can result in a chance to polish the skills, and use theoretical education and turn them into working skills. Hands-on training and mentor-ship can reap a lot of benefits in the future.

If you are already a working individual and have experience in the software or hardware development field, then the process would be easier for you. Switching fields can be tough but not as hard as beginning from the start. You might have some connections that you can reach out to, and get insights and opportunities to begin your journey in VR/AR. You can ask for guidance from your connection, and pay attention to the workings in this field. Even though it requires a similar skill set, working with the AR/VR platform can be a little different. 

Our final piece of advice would be, continue to grow and learn. No matter if you are a candidate who is starting from the beginning or someone switching fields. The key to sustaining your position is growing and learning. The tech sector is dynamic, and it evolves every day, and to keep up with the latest trends, the candidates should be able to stay up-to-date on all the latest technologies and learn them quickly. Learn to change your methods and learn to use all the new tools that are developed every day. It is vital to know about being malleable and dynamic from the start and be prepared for it. 

How to stand out in the competition

AR/VR technologies have become the latest trend today, and it is expected to stay like this for a while. The VR/AR companies are looking for candidates who are not just skilled and eligible, but are also passionate about their work, can work independently, and don’t fear the risks. To stand out from the competition you need to have all this, and you have to be bold. 

You should do your research and stay informed about all the latest trends in the market. With the right mindset and skillset, it is important to possess a working knowledge of the industry and how it operates. This will help you stand out and increase your chances of getting selected. 

Look and evaluate the requirement for the job and assess yourself, and if you are the right fit. Different companies look for different individuals, some companies might require a candidate who is a team player and can collaborate with the team to complete the project. Some might want a candidate who can bring something new to the table and come up with new plans and strategies to take the project to a new level. Or some companies look for classic candidates who can work on a routine and deliver the projects on time. 

The most valuable skill in AR/VR is cross-training with various languages and platforms. To stand out you can have polished skills and experience in the industry with skills like innovative problem-solving and continuous development. 

Keep Growing 

One of the most important things to keep in mind is to stay true to your work. No matter which career field you choose, give it your 100%. You can never grow or achieve something great if you hold back, or your attention is diverted. 

Try new things, stay updated on the latest trends, and make an effort to grow. You can invest your leisure time in picking up a new skill that might help you in work. Or complete a short course, all this will help you grow and sustain your value in the industry.  

The years of practice and hard work will pay off one day, and you will find yourself a master of the field. It is a process and to get success in any field, you have to stay true to it. Just do your part, and the rest will be taken care of by the time. 

You can invest in getting proper education and the right course, it will make the process of getting hired a little easier for you. You can look for institutes that offer courses on AR/VR development and get yourself enrolled. 

Getting an education from an established school will help support your career, and who knows you might get a placement opportunity from their campus. Sometimes the faculty have contacts in the industry, and they can help you get a kickstart on your career. 

Now you know, what it takes to make a career in the AR/VR industry. You can develop all the necessary skills and begin your career journey the right way. Make sure to stay focused and dedicated, and continue to learn and evolve, and you will one day reach the top. Good luck!

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What To Do If You Were Laid Off During COVID-19

There is no way to justify it or sugarcoat it, getting laid-off sucks! When you work for a company, you invest a lot of energy and time and give your best. Along with your personal growth, you shared a common organizational growth, and you devoted your sincere efforts to achieve that. And being let-go from a company you gave your heart and soul can be extremely hard. When working for a company, a relationship is built with the organizations and getting that relation broken off can sting.

No matter the circumstances, it is bound to hurt. And a lot of people faced this in this pandemic. Although, you might be feeling blue after being laid-off even after devoting all that time and energy in your work. But if you look at some successful people testimonials, most of them agree that being laid-off was the best thing ever happened to them. They got a new perspective, little time to think, and came back the other side stronger than ever. 

1. Don’t blame yourself, the pandemic was a hard time

The pandemic has been hard on the market and to cut costs, many companies had to laid-off some employees. Even though it hurts a lot, you should remember that there is no personal agenda. Maybe your employer is going through a rough patch and cannot afford to have a lot of employees. It is possible, that the employer is having a hard time too. No employer would want to let go of their hardworking and experienced employees. The virus outburst has been exceptionally hard for companies. They might not have enough resources to support you, that leaves hem with no other option to lay-off some employees. No matter the circumstances, you just shouldn’t blame yourself or doubt your skills. Do not let your confidence and self-esteem waver, it is not your fault. 

2. Arrange your financial resources

Know your rights

You work for a company, to attain professional growth. But you shouldn’t forget that a company needs the employees, as much as employees need the company. You are not entirely dependent on your employer to provide you with job security. There are certain laws in place, that are in the employees’ interest. No company can let go the employees, without giving you a 15-30 days notice. A company need a valid reason to let go of the employees. If a company is letting go 50% of their workforce or is shutting down, then they need to provide at least a 60 days notice to all of its employees. It is essential to know about your rights and if you feel that your rights are being violated, don’t hesitate to speak up and demand your rights.

Get your last paycheck

When you are being let go from your firm, it is only fair to ask for that last paycheck. Don’t compromise your paycheck, ask your employer how and when will you receive your final cheque. Ensure that all the values add up, ask about your overtime, accrued vacation, leave encashment, and other amounts. Get in touch with the HR, and don’t hesitate to ask for the pay, you earned it. You should ask your employer to handover the paycheck immediately. Once you get your paycheck, you can set a budget and make a plan on how long that money is gonna last you. You can alter your expenses according to the budget, and cut down any unnecessary expenses. 

Some companies provide a severance package, gratuity, or provident fund when they let go of any of their employees. This can bring you a little relief as it is a gesture made by some companies to show gratitude to their employees.  

Check for insurance and other benefits

Many companies provide health insurance and other benefits to their employees. Make sure to ask your HR that what will happen to these policies and benefits. Even though you have to make some alterations to your lifestyle but make this a priority to maintain, so it doesn’t affect your future. 

In this pandemic, some companies are sending off their employees to unpaid leave or asking them to work from home. When these changes are made, communicate with your HR or employer about how these changes will affect the insurance and other benefits. Companies often don’t take these benefits away, but it is advisable to ask. 

Collect your recommendation letters and references

When a company lay off its employees on good terms, then a recommendation letter and references can help you in your professional future. A recommendation letter from your seniors and team leaders can help you get a job in future easily. Ask your superiors if you can list them as your reference in future job interviews. If the reason for this layoff is the pandemic, then ask your HR department to provide you with a letter stating that the lay off is due to the pandemic, and the employee is not getting fired. This will help you land a job easily in future. 

Manage your connections

Even though you are being laid off from your job, that doesn’t mean you have to say goodbye to your connections. Have you made some friends in your workplace who can support you in this tough time? Keep in contact with them, it can be helpful in your future career. Did you work well with your colleague on a project? Did you two were a great team? Maybe you can partner up with them for future projects. Keeping in contact with your colleagues and co-workers can bring you potential projects. This will give you an option of reaching out to them if you face some professional difficulties or challenges. Make sure you have a strong network, they can hook you up with some new opportunities and you can turn to them if you face some challenges with a particular project. 

3. Relax! And take a deep breath

Once you have taken care of all the immediate steps after getting let go. It’s time to take a break. It was tough to digest, and maybe it took a lot out of you. Take a step back and try to gain some perspective. Yes, we know how hurtful losing your job is. It sucks, it gets to us and makes us doubt our skills. Leave us feeling aimless and exhausted for days, sometimes weeks. 

Getting out of routine, waking up with nowhere to go throw us out of our schedule and then the reality sets in, that we have lost the place where we belonged and fit in. All those feelings are natural, getting angry, sad and even depressed is normal. But once we have accepted the fact, that this job is over, you have to find ways to bring back some hope. Remember that this set-back can be used as an opportunity. You have finally had the time to think and narrow down the choices that get you excited. Relax a little, as you might never get a break like this. Take time and figure out what you want to do next. Remember to take things slow and not take any pressure. This time will pass, and soon you will have another job, and you will be back on your feet in no time. 

4. Brush your skills and prepare for something new

If you were laid off, then it is the perfect time to make a switch and finally, go into something that excites you. You might be aiming higher (which you should) when you start looking for a new job. The perfect way to use the time between two jobs is to brush up your skills and learn something new. You can opt for online courses that can help you learn more and polish your skills. If you are serious about going into a new field, then you can take time and sign up for offline classes and courses to make yourself eligible for that certain position. 

There are a lot of free online courses that you can learn to ace in your new workplace. You can utilize this time the best by investing time and energy in learning and picking up new skills that will help you in your future job. It will help bring you mental peace and clear your mind. Which in turn can fill you up with newfound energy to appear in interviews and get a job. 

5. Get back in the workforce

The final step would be to get back out there and start looking for jobs. Once you make up your mind, you can go back to the same field or try something new. No matter what you do, just be confident and don’t let your self-esteem shake off. Even if you don’t get another job instantly, keep trying and don’t hesitate to ask your co-workers or friends for a lead. Keep brushing your skills, as it will help you in staying top of your game and make you more appealing to the companies. Follow the usual job hunting steps like updating resume, network and preparing for interviews and stay positive.


We understand that getting laid off is tough to go through. But it can help you grow, it can take you out of your comfort zone and can be an exciting opportunity to grow. Who knows, maybe you will land your dream job after being laid off by your previous company? Take your time to gather your thoughts after being let go and once you have it under control, take charge and shoot for the stars. 

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How to Make a Career as a Freelancer

The pandemic shaped the new world. Remote work options, and communicating via online channels have become the new normal in the world. It is safe to say that a copious amount of employees lost their jobs last year, but as they say, when a door closes, a window of opportunity always opens up.

In this context, the window is freelancing work. The option to freelance always existed, but from the past decade, it has been skyrocketing. 

Opting for freelancing as a career gives you freedom and independence. Freelancers are often self-employed and provide services to businesses and clients. Freelancing gives individuals the freedom to provide these services to multiple clients at a time.

Freelancers can work in a variety of industries like marketing, social media marketing, copy-writing, publicity, writing, web programming and design, bookkeeping, financial support, and even creative work like graphic design.

Freelancing not only gives you freedom but also provides flexibility. A freelancer is free to work according to their schedule. They can set their own hours, decide to work full-time or part-time, and even choose the projects and clients they want to work with. All these aspects set a freelancer apart from a 9 to 5 employee.

A freelancer is more like an independent contractor who is offering services and can control how the work is to be done. This distinction is important to note, as this is taken into account when paying taxes. The Income-tax Department views employees and independent contractors differently, and thus the taxes for both are different.

Freelancers also have the opportunity to set their own prices for the services they render to different clients. This price is often higher than an employee would make working at an office.

The industry determines the length of a relationship between a freelancer and a client. As the regularity of work in freelancing can vary. Some freelancers like web design freelancers are often hired for a project, like developing a website.

And when the website is up and running the contract is over and so is the working relationship between client and freelancers. While others like, freelance writers can have the same clients for a long period depending upon their requirements.

They might hire a freelance writer for an ongoing project that requires submission of 1-2 articles every week. So they can have a working relationship with the client as long as the project is running.

There are many benefits when a person decides to go freelance, and some of them are:

#1- Flexibility- The joy of working solo

We are not against a 9 to 5 routine, but the generation has changed, and so are their preferences. Today, more people have spontaneous bursts of energy at any given time of the day, and they prefer to work like a beast in this period.

But our system does not allow them. The main benefit of going freelance is you can work according to your schedule as long as you deliver the project on time and this is the kind of freedom most employees crave.

Along with the option to work on their own hours, freelancing allows them to work from anywhere, from home, cafe, or any other place. This freedom dulls the geographical boundaries and freelancers can take on projects from anywhere in the world, as long as they have a stable internet connection. 

#2- Variety of Projects

If you are someone who gets bored from the repetition of work, then freelancing may be the best fit for you.

Freelancing allows you to take a dive into the pool of opportunities. A freelancer can work with clients from different industries and choose the projects that appeal to them. Freelancing helps you build an extensive portfolio with different badges on it.

You can have an opportunity to learn from all the new challenges and grow with them. It truly gives you exposure in your field, making you a jack of all trades. Say goodbye to getting bored sitting on your desk and doing the same repetitive task for the millionth time.

When you decide to go freelance, you will have plenty of options to keep you engaged.

#3- Choose your Clients

Let’s admit it, we have all had clients who drove us crazy and we would have given anything to get rid of them. But our job didn’t let us, so we felt stuck and had to serve their bizarre demands while putting on a smiley face.

Well, that will not happen in freelancing, not only you get to choose your own projects but also, the people you want to work with. There will be no compulsion to serve a client because your Team Leader told you to.

You will have an option to say “NO” and save yourself from days of bickering and nitpicking. You will not have to work with people who go against your moral objectives and simply do not value your work. You can deny them and keep looking for better clients. 

#4 – Valuing your Work

We all know that freelancing doesn’t provide financial security as a full-time job. We constantly have to give our 100% to every project to get paid, while in a full-time job, we sometimes let loose and let it affect our performance.

Even though freelancing can be a bit challenging and keep us on our toes it makes us understand the value of our work. We don’t just let fate decide anything for us, but we get up to perform well and earn recognition and money via our skills and talents.

The constant rush makes us aware of the uncertainty of the market, and we tend to have multiple backup plans “just in case”. This actually makes us better at understanding the value of financial security and what working hard means. 

#5- You will same some extra expenses

Although this is not the best perk of freelancing, it is a perk nonetheless — working as a freelancer allows you to save some expenses like the cost of commuting.

If you used your car, your petrol, diesel money would be saved, and if you travelled via public transport then no more fares. Also, freelancing saves you some other expenses that come while we work a full-time job like food expenses, if you organize your work smartly at home, you will get some spare time to cook your meals.

Freelancing will also save you the money you had to spend on dressing well when you work in an office. But at home, you can work in your PJs or loungewear.

These are some of the benefits of working as a freelancer. If you are intrigued then listed below are some ways you can start freelancing as a career.

Essentials to Start Freelancing as a Career

#1- Have a Set Vision

So you have decided to try your hand at freelancing. The first things first you need to be prepared for. Not just financially but mentally as well.

Like every job, freelancing can also take some time for you to get a hang of. You will not receive clients on your very first day, but you will have to keep trying until you succeed. 

First, you have to make yourself believe that no matter what you can do it. That will only happen when you actually start to look for leads in the market and begin working as a freelancer. Until then, you will have to motivate yourself internally and keep going. 

When the fog of uncertainty and doubt will clear, you will find yourself in a place of sheer excitement where you will be the master of your work.

To determine which path you have to go, just ask yourself some simple questions, like “why are you doing it?”, “will the clients you are targeting favor it?”. This will help you succeed in freelancing. 

#2- Select the structure of the business

Freelancing is not just a hobby that people do on the side to earn some extra money. But it can be a full-fledged and functional working business plan. More and more employees are quitting their jobs to go freelance full time.

The structure of your business depended on your needs. You can have it listed as a legal entity or sole proprietorship, the choice is all yours. Many freelancers choose to establish their business as a limited liability company as it can have many benefits legally.

To figure out which structure you want for your business, sit down and make a business plan. Keep your goals in mind and research thoroughly. You will find out the advantages you will get after registering your business in set structures. List them down and decide on one.

If you are too overwhelmed and you have no clear idea of where to begin, then don’t panic. You do not have to register your company right away. You can do it later once you have some clients and have earned confidence that you can do it.

But we will suggest that you have a tax plan and arrange the accounting of your business as well. 

#3- Design Material for Marketing

After you have a clear vision of your business and you have decided on how to structure it. The next step would be to let people know that you are launching your business in the market. The best way to do so that is through marketing materials. Don’t worry, we are not telling you to buy billboards and run ads on TVs, some small steps would suffice. 

Start by creating a social media account solely for your business, create a website (if you can), and let your website and social media account reach as many people as possible. Order some business cards for your new business and reach out to your family, friends, and connections.

Let them know about your business, ask them to share your website, social media account, and business cards in your circle. It will increase your chance of getting noticed and who knows maybe bring you a ton of business. 

You will be amazed by how fast these networks work. But before they refer you to their connections, make sure you explain to them about your business model and the services you provide. Miscommunication can lead to some awkward interactions.

#4- Create a Kickass Portfolio

We strongly advise you to only launch your freelance business when you have the right experience in providing the services you mentioned while marketing.

If you don’t have enough exposure in the field, then wait and gain some exposure. Create a file of quality samples that you can showcase as you offer those services.

A strong portfolio increases your chances of getting a project. Invest your time and create a portfolio that showcases your talents and skills. If you have successfully completed projects from different industries, it will be a huge selling point.

Since your portfolio is the only tangible item that clients will check before giving you any project. It is of utmost importance that your portfolio is no short of impressive. If you don’t have a strong portfolio, then you should wait while you gain some experience and create a portfolio.

Creating a portfolio is not complicated, but it does take some time and effort to create a portfolio that will get you noticed. A portfolio is a collection of all the impressive work you have done in the past. If you don’t have any work to showcase, then create some samples to showcase to your clients and get a kickstart on freelancing as a career

#5- Build Financial Processes

When starting any business, it is essential to focus on all the finances. Keeping a track of them will help you get a clear idea of how much you are spending and what are your profits.

To be on the safe side create a template of the invoice you are going to send to your clients, set the prices for all the services you are offering, and calculate the taxes.

Keeping track of your finances from the start will keep the mess at bay and help you get a clear idea of your monthly income. You can also keep a record of all the services you rendered and how much you made from each project.

#6- Believe in Yourself

The most important element of running any business and making it profitable is belief. If you keep doubting your abilities, skills, and experience it will be reflected in your work.

The process of success begins when you stop selling yourself short and believe in the quality of services you are providing.

Instead of panicking and doubting your abilities, keep your mind clear and focus on the work. The business will have some ups and downs, don’t lose your heart, keep working dedicatedly, and it will surely show positive results.


Even though freelancing as a career looks appealing, it comes with its set of challenges. Make sure you are mentally prepared to face these challenges before you leave your job and dive into the world of freelancing.

If you have the right mindset and determination you will make it as a freelancer. Keep the resources, courage, and confidence near to help you when the situation becomes challenging. 

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Latest trends in Laravel Development in 2021

Laravel is a PHP-based application scheme that is used for web development purposes. These are commonly used by many people as they have various added features like a fast-evolving mechanism. This is used to create modular web applications with higher levels of security.

It is very comprehensive, user-friendly, and easy to learn and to comprehend by people. It also allows web applications to be created with a wide number of features, from the basic to the highest level of performance levels.

In addition to the simplicity it upholds, the encoding experience also follows up to performance levels that are errorless and they make use of the Laravel framework or the Top laravel development company.

There are some key trends that have been adopted by Laravel Development. These comprise the database usage, cloud storage features, or database handling. This can be done by Laravel for its application development process. It also offers features that will help one to develop attractive and simple web applications.

The following are the key trends, they are the use of the Model – View – Controller (MVC), trustworthiness, innovative features, safety and security, object based library, base for startup, enhancing PHP and the future prospects of PHP, Laravel and IoT. 

MVC (Model – View – Controller)

Laravel makes complete use of the Model – View – Controller system, which is useful for both the designers and creators. Furthermore, the MVC is used by Laravel which assists in understanding the business logic and also the user interface code that is also useful for this feature.


This is another feature that allows Laravel to be widely accepted and used by the world. This helps to create and develop various websites. This helps in the process of the acceptance and makes this platform a much trusted source for the various developers. This is also very fast, efficient and it is secure. This attracts the attention of many people. This is also very dependable. 

Innovative Features

This allows the market to offer various types of the PHP frameworks that also give a very tough competition to its competitors. In order to remain highly competitive in the market. People have to opt for various innovative features overtime. Furthermore, Laravel is continuously added for its new features and allows other competitors to make use of these. 

Safety and Security

This is another important feature of Laravel framework. This ensures the users are protected well against these cyber crimes. This helps to keep them in good hands. This also ensures that the security features are well incorporated to these platforms.

As the number of cyber crimes are continuously increasing, there is a need for people to safeguard their website from these attacks. This will keep them under protected and secure measures. Furthermore, Laravel aims to provide its users a safe and secure networking system.

Object based library

This is a feature that is followed by many. This allows them to develop the respective framework. This makes use of the pre-installed Laravel library. This also makes use of the support from the large amount of data.

This also makes use of the processing to be done easily. This also comprises the information verifying system. This is of great use to its users. 

Base for Startups

Start ups are a growing field and many people are stepping forward to engage in startups. Laravel is not only a platform that supports the established organisations.

This also makes use of the various framework systems to establish and create a new startup scheme. This allows Laravel to handle large amounts of data that is well protected.

Furthermore, they can also reach out to the various other markets much more easily. This helps to reduce a lot of time wastage from taking place. This also allows for the smooth functioning of the applications. 

Enhancing the Functioning of PHP

It is important to transform a digital world. However,this process can be very challenging and tedious for people to follow. This is mainly due to the organizations which have an aim to gain users and their interest.

This increases their engagement levels. This then leaves room for continuous  improvement in web application creation. Hence in order to lead the market, individuals are trying to provide the best. Hence in the future, PHP is used to save the rapid execution process for the various codes and memory utilization.

This helps to make full use of Laravel as it is the most well-known and trendy framework across PHP.

Future uses of PHP, Laravel, and IoT

This allows the combination of all these networks. This then helps to develop a system which is closely tied and works well together by the collaborative measures.

This also helps to create new applications that are very useful and in building an application that is very clear in their goals and in the process of development. There are many best laravel development companies that are found hence people can seek their help. 

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Reasons Why You Hate Your Job and Steps You Can Take to Help Your Situation

Does your mind often wonder that I hate my job?

Our careers start when we are in our 20s, and we work till retirement. At one point in this time frame, we are bound to come across a toxic job.

A job that sucks the joy out of our lives and makes us miserable. The reasons behind this hatred can be prominent like we hate our boss or sometimes more subtle, that we don’t even notice are happening around us that makes us hate our jobs.

Some of the reasons that make you hate your job can be.

1. I Hate My Job Because I Don’t Know What Else to do

At the beginning of your career, you might not have known in which field you wanted to go. And after appearing in multiple interviews, you got selected somewhere you weren’t passionate about.

Given, at first, you enjoyed a steady source of income and the fact that your career has begun. But soon, the lack of passion and drive started bringing resentment towards that job, making it harder to get up in the morning and showing up at work.

The lack of research at the beginning of your career made you settle for a job that doesn’t excite you. And now, you are not sure what else you can do. So you feel stuck at that job with no possible way to come out of it and switch fields. 

2. I Hate My Job For all the Wrong Reasons

Certain psychological theories describe that there are a set of reasons that motivates us to continue with our jobs. One of the main motivation factors is the paycheck we get every month.

The theory describes if you work because of any reason other than a passion for the said work, you will never love your job.

So, motivation like a paycheck, or passing time, or just continuing with the job because you don’t want to stay at home can make you resent your job, and make you unsatisfied with your work.

3. I Hate My Job Because it’s Not in Sync

Each one of us has a certain skill set that we want to use optimally to perform better. When working in a company, we are required to work with a team and work at their pace. Once that happens, we can feel some of our skills not being used optimally.

This can bring overpowering feelings of self-doubt, and we begin to question our quality of work. Being in sync with our co-workers and team members is essential for us to feel at peace with our jobs. 

4. I Hate My Job Because of Power Distances and Feeling Exploited

Being asked to put too much effort into our work or working in a place where you have no power and a lot of accountability can bring a lot of frustration and resentment. Some employees face prejudice at work where they have to work harder and longer than other employees on the same level.

This makes them feel exploited and can even go as far as making them hate their jobs. Feeling powerless and exploited is one of the main reasons employees start hating their jobs and switch it eventually.

5. I Hate My Job Because Security is in the Trash

Contractual employees or employees who are working on a project basis show more dissatisfaction towards their jobs as compared to permanent employees. The constant fear of losing the job after the project ends doesn’t provide them with enough motivation to love their job or put any effort into their jobs.

Contractual employees don’t feel happy in their positions because they have nothing to look forward to like no hikes and no bonuses. The lack of stability makes them a little shaky. It brings a lot of problems in their personal and professional lives.

If you are working in a contractual position, the lack of security can make you go crazy. You will always have a fear in the back of your mind that you can be let go anytime. The only solution to this problem would be to look for a permanent position to eliminate those fears and insecurities.

6. I Hate My Job Because I have to Commute Too Much

Commuting via a personal vehicle or public transport to reach your office will add to your office hours. If it takes about two hours for you to finally arrive at the office and two hours in the evening to get back home, it can add an awful lot of time to your working hours.

This reason doesn’t actually have to do much with the job itself, but the time it takes to travel. This travel time might look okay at first, but when you actually have to commute daily then it can be extremely discomforting.

You will want to avoid this commuting time, and when you can’t, it will start bringing resentment and add to your problem pile. The commuting time will cost you your alone time, or time with family and friends that will start pinching you. It can become a solid reason to hate your job. 

7. I Hate My Job Because I had to Leave my Hometown

Did you leave your family and hometown behind in search of a high paying job? A lot of people leave their families and skip cities to build their careers. At first, everything seems perfect, but after time passes, the reality starts to set in.

We begin to miss our families and friends. Adjusting to a brand new place can be overwhelming, and the job that brought joy to our lives starts making us feel incomplete. This in turn starts to mess with our heads and makes us blame the job for our miserable life.

The hate can come in waves when they miss any special events with their beloved family and eventually leave their jobs to reunite with them.

8. I Hate My Job Because of my Mindset

For some people, the reason for the hate towards their jobs comes from their negative mindset. No matter how fulfilling and full of amazing opportunities their job is, they always compare their lives with the person sitting next to them.

And even though their own life is working fine, they feel insecure about their co-worker’s achievements. This negative mindset can bring complicated feelings and can be projected on their respective jobs, consequently hating their jobs.

9. I Hate My Job Because I Dislike Co-workers

Do you hate dealing with your boss and you just can’t seem to avoid it?

Do your co-workers take credit for all the work you do in a team?

Is the environment of your office toxic?

Is bullying at your workplace deemed normal in the name of being friendly?

If you answered any of these questions yes, then we understand how difficult it must be for you to show up at work every day, a charged environment can be hard to be in. It affects not only your mood but also your performance.

And if you feel that your mood and performance along with other things are deteriorating, then it can result in a feeling of hatred towards your job.

10. I Hate My Job because of Lack of Commitment and Focus

A lack of commitment and concrete aim can make you feel less valuable which can lower your self-esteem and eventually contribute to you hating your job. A concrete aim provides us with an exhilarating motivation.

One that forces you to get up in the morning and work hard to achieve that aim. If you do not have a concrete aim in your life, it can result in a lack of motivation and commitment and affect your performance at work.

So, if you are unable to pinpoint the reason for hatred toward your job, then this can be it.

Above are some of the reasons that can make anyone hate their jobs. If you have found the reason why you hate your job, then it’s time to do something about it. Below are some of the steps you can take to improve your situation.

What to Do When You Resent Your Job, and You Don’t want To Quit

1. Assess Your Situation

No matter how obvious this piece of advice is, to improve your situation, you first have to identify the root of what’s causing it. The only way to do that is by changing your perspective and asking yourself some questions.

Ask yourself the reason why you hate your job. Is it because of co-workers? The toxic environment? Lack of growth? Or simply because you are in the wrong field? You can take the help of our list above to determine the cause of your hatred.

Once you have had some time with yourself and you have successfully pinpointed the reason for your hatred then you can make a road map on how to improve your situation.

2. Have the Tough Conversations

Once you have had the conversation with yourself and you successfully identified the problem it’s time to take steps to solve it.

If the cause of your resentment is from external factors like too much workload, not enough compensation, a toxic work environment, or any other external factor then these issues can be resolved by communication. 

Take a step forward and explain your situation to the authority figure in your workplace. You can reach out to anyone, your team leader, HR, or even your boss.

This is a window of opportunity that can help improve your situation and bring back the peace of your mind.

Although, it is your boss’s job to make sure that the office environment is healthy. Sometimes they slip out, at that time it’s our responsibility to reach out and communicate the problem with them.

This step can be a little nerve-wracking but has the potential to solve your problem and make your work life better.  

3. Switch Your Perspective

Sometimes, a little shift in perspective can work wonders and solve all the problems at once. The resentment and hatred can come from some internal factors like a negative mindset.

And although no one wants to hear the advice to “stay positive”, implying it can actually bring change in your situation. 

Are you tired of your job and constantly check time to see when the clock will strike 5, and you will get out of there? If it is happening to you, then you might not be challenging yourself at work.

Same work every day and not enough challenges can bring a feeling of boredom makes us indifferent to returning to work. 

Set yourself up, spice things up a little. One way to keep yourself engaged is to make a to-do list and cross things off them. This helps in setting up small achievable goals and when you achieve them, it will feel like a small success, that will boost your confidence and keep you excited all day long.

4. Vent About It

Taking the feelings off your chest is the best way to deal with them. This goes for both personal and professional issues. Although updating how much you hate your job on social media is not advisable, you can have a heart to heart conversation with a few friends and family members.

Talk openly with them about how you feel, and they might be able to bring a new perspective which can end up helping you highlight the problem, or better they can provide you with a solution you can implement and improve your miserable situation.

5. Do Your Best Work

The emotional turmoil can make it harder to perform well on a job you resent. The hate might take a toll on your performance and can end up making you feel even more dissatisfied. If you don’t have anything else lined up, then this situation can be even worse.

Although you might not feel like putting effort into a job you hate. But it can be a sure-shot way to lift your spirits. Working hard and putting effort into your performance will add stars to it.

You might get recognition and praise from your co-workers and bosses. This can make you feel included and valued and also provide you with peace of mind that you are giving your best on the work front.

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