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Salary Negotiation Decoded: How to Negotiate Salary with HR?

Regardless of whether you’re an established worker at your organization or you’re near finding your dream job, arranging a more suitable salary is something nobody should avoid. 

For many individuals, salary dealings can be one of the most overwhelming possibilities of one’s vocation. In any case, there are numerous methods of planning which will limit your concerns and assist you with acknowledging your own value as well as precisely what pay would be suitable for somebody in your job. 

If you feel that your salary is generally not reflective of the significance of the work you do, it’s essential that you approach the issue impartially and arrange proof supporting your case. 

What Are Salary Negotiations? 

Whether or not you’re a fresh recruit or a drawn-out representative, you ought to consistently feel engaged to make some noise If that you feel your salary and advantages bundle are not in accordance with the worth you bring to your organization. 

Pay dealings are conversations you hold with a delegate of either your current or forthcoming organization. An individual from the HR office will regularly be available, if not the essential individual with whom your conversations are held. 

Notwithstanding numerous individuals’ interests, there is positively no explanation that salary negotiations should turn antagonistic. Recall that you and they are at last on a similar side. The most gainful salary negotiations are those between people who recognize and acknowledge their shared objective: that employees get a reasonable salary as per their value. 

For what reason is it Important to Negotiate Salary? 

You need to remember that arranging your salary is an altogether typical and satisfactory practice inside your ability as a worker. Accepting the salary you merit is all essential for the headway of your profession. 

Your salary is illustrative of more than only what is being saved into your ledger. It is demonstrative of your organization’s enthusiasm for your work, your worth, and your aptitudes. It is additionally your organization’s immediate methods for supporting you and your work-life balance. 

It’s Not Just Your Salary You’re Negotiating .

It’s critical to remember that your salary includes the occupation related advantages you get. Haggling for a portion of these advantages will help you in accomplishing the total salary and advantages bundle that you feel is fitting for your function at the organization. These advantages include: 

  • Mentoring and instructing. This is, basically, inestimable. Both can prompt your own proficient development as well as the development of your associations with pioneers inside the organization. 
  • Health and wellness. Just as clinical and dental protection, haggling for such advantages as fitness stipends, healthcare, and gym membership can enhance your primary concern. 
  • Childcare. The venture of childcare, as far as both cash and time, can rapidly add up. Haggling for childcare is a viable path for guardians to make sure about a more advantageous working plan. 
  • Flexibility. The choices of working from home, working while at the same time going or working to an alternate timetable can be unquestionably more alluring than a more significant salary for certain individuals. 
  • Training, proficient turn of events, and affirmations. Only some organizations offer successful certification programs to their workers. Career-oriented people should try to haggle for improvement assets as a feature of their benefits package. 
  • University educational cost repayment. Schooling cost is getting perpetually costly. Haggling for repayment on your time reading is hugely engaging for those workers who wish to proceed with their schooling. 

It’s a given that your salary itself is significant while thinking about an offer or signing another dabbed line, yet the previously mentioned types of pay can likewise be vital to a reasonable salary exchange. 

How Do I Ascertain My Worth?

Before you start salary negotiations, it’s imperative to direct research and discover how much your occupation is worth in the market in general. What are your aptitudes and experience truly worth to your boss, current or imminent? By being readied and equipped with proof to back up your statements, you will have the option to introduce a lot stronger case. 

Salaries are reliant on an immense number of components, including status, geology, and industry, so choosing an alluring salary will be dependent upon you finding what you can reasonably ask for. Glassdoor’s amazing “Know Your Worth” tool can give you a customized assessed market an incentive for your part, just as data on what others in your job are being paid. 

When you have a rough approximation for your fairly estimated value, you will have the option to contrast it with the normal salary of the situation for which you are competing. Glassdoor can help you gauge the salary for a function before you even apply for it. 

7 Need-to-Know Salary Negotiation Skills

There is no single reading material way to deal with salary negotiations, so it’s essential to be profoundly mindful of your current circumstance, your value, and your field prior to going into them. 

Salary negotiations are not a fight. Realizing how to negotiate a higher salary involves agreeing with your boss and you will encounter the most ideal result. 

1) Look Confident (regardless of whether don’t feel it) 

Put on that game face. You need to show up absolutely certain about the position you are taking inside the negotiations. Try not to settle. Know your value and remember why you mentioned a salary negotiation in any case. 

Keep in mind that negotiations are frequently opened at the lower end of the salary range, for the straightforward explanation that employees or up-and-comers are relied upon to haggle for something more serious. Be respectful and expert, however, similarly don’t avoid standing your corner. All things considered, obviously, never appear to be pompous. This can enormously hurt your situation in the dealings as well as your standing in the long haul. Continuously be generous, regardless of whether — particularly if — you don’t leave the negotiations having gained what you needed. 

2) Resist making — or accepting — the primary offer 

If you are straightforwardly asked what your salary prerequisites are, attempt to try not to express a careful figure. Consider rather reacting that your salary necessities depend on both the job you are going for and the general pay bundle. On the other hand, propose that you believe you need more data about the duties of the function before you can examine salary. If, for reasons unknown, you feel obliged or constrained to make the principal offer, reach skyward inside practical limits, with the objective being to compromise with their presumable counteroffer in the middle. 

It’s likewise significant to not simply acknowledge the primary offer. If you believe you need time to consider the big picture, don’t be hesitant to say as much. Timetable another gathering for a couple of days’ time and get back with a sure counteroffer when you’re prepared. 

3) Prepare some strong inquiries 

Show that you have given the dealings some genuine idea by concocting some vital questions for the agent of the organization. 

  • “How could you result in these present circumstances figure?” If they take the first move and name a salary, make certain to enquire after the computations and reasoning behind it. This will likewise permit you to check whether what you’re being offered is a hard cap or an expected springboard for additional dealings. 
  • “What is the standpoint for raises and promotions?” Regardless of whether your salary is debatable, you ought to consistently know about what way your profession could take later on should you acknowledge the offer. 
  • “Might I be able to have this proposal in writing?” Settling on a salary in support of yourself is extraordinary, certain — yet it makes no difference until it’s on paper. 
  • “Other than the base salary, what other advantages are debatable?” These advantages may incorporate education and training, medical insurance, vacation time, paid leave, and moving expenses. Likewise, remember that your salary may not decisively be up for exchange — yet this doesn’t mean your benefits package won’t be. 
  • “What measurements do you use to assess a worker’s success?” Having this data to hand can deliver you extraordinary profits whenever you wind up back at the arranging table. 

4) Come with a salary range, not a solitary figure 

If that you are squeezed for your salary necessities, guarantee that you generally offer a reach, in light of what others in the field are acquiring. You can obtain this information from your very own examination, which you can depend on to educate your arranging position and strategy. Being adaptable, rather than adhering ardently to a solitary figure, encourages you in your negotiations as a rule and furthermore permits you to all the more effectively arrive at a trade-off. 

5) Practice your pitch 

Try not to leave the day of the exchange alone the first occasion when you hear your pitch emerging from your mouth! Ask somebody you trust to tune in to your pitch so they can assess it from a more target stance. Besides, rehearsing your pitch out loud methods you will become accustomed to the rhythm of your focuses when contextualized in a conversational setting. Keep in mind, you can’t disparage the significance of being seen as cool, quiet, and gathered during a negotiation. 

6) Be cognizant of your influence 

Your arranging power is profoundly dependent upon your present business status and circumstance. If you are jobless and looking for work, it’s more reasonable to hope to acquire around your old salary, maybe even somewhat less, than it is to hope to go in after a break from work and quickly be earning more than you used to.

7) Don’t avoid showing your worth 

If your counteroffer is dismissed, be prepared to clarify definitely why you accept your solicitation is, truth be told, legitimized. Show exactly how the organization would profit from your ability by referring to clear and noteworthy instances of how you have increased the value of your previous (and current) work environments. Demonstrate that you have genuinely and truly assessed and concentrated each aspect of your salary. Additionally, be ready for a definitive inquiry they can toss at you: “For what reason do you merit this salary?” 

Haggle for your dream pay 

There’s no should be on edge while thinking about how to arrange your salary. Toward the day’s end, you are similarly as significant to your organization (or planned organization) as they are to you. Pay negotiations are a vital part of each representative’s vocation at some stage. However long you’re readied, sure, agreeable, proficient, and genuine, you won’t go far wrong. 

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Software Engineer Interview Questions

Software Engineering is an in-demand profession in which the individual applies the principles of the subject to the development, design, and evaluation of computer software in an efficient way.  

While every software engineer can easily acquire basic bookish knowledge, finding someone who can add value to the organization can be a bit difficult. The job is quite demanding, and software engineers must possess communication skills, teamwork, and cooperation alongside being proficient in their field.  

Every good interviewer starts with a basic question revolving around the concept, and then gradually delves deeper based on the answer of the interviewee.  

They may also ask practical and personal questions to gain an insight into how cooperative they can be as the job can get stressful sometimes. 

Most of the software engineering jobs fall into two broad categories: General programming jobs and field-specific jobs.

If you are an interviewee applying for a domain-specific position, you can expect technical questions based on that particular field.

Some of the important domains under software engineering are system software, embedded software, and web applications. 

In this article, we have compiled questions that are most likely to be asked in a job interview for software engineers. Read further to learn more! 


General Software Engineering Questions 

These basic questions will determine whether the interviewee knows the foundation of software engineering. Only if they excel in this field, they will progress further.  

  • What are computer software and software engineering? 
  • What are the available SDLC models available so far? 
  • What is debugging in the software development process? 
  • What programming languages are you familiar with? 
  • What programming language do you find the easiest? 
  • What is the role of a software project manager? 
  • Name some software project estimation techniques 
  • What do you know about software configuration management? 
  • Name some project management tools? 
  • What are the requirements for efficient software? 
  • What are modularization and cohesion? 
  • Name some software analysis and design tools 
  • Point out the difference between quality assurance and quality control? 
  • What is the difference between EXE and DLL? 
  • What is a function point? 
  • State the difference between structures English and Pseudocode. 
  • What do you know about the top-down and bottom-up design model? 
  • Explain the black box and white box testing with a brief description of its working. 
  • According to you, is software maintenance expensive? 
  • What is the main difference between tags and branches? 
  • Develop an algorithm to get a simple output 
  • What is the framework? 
  • Are there any limitations for a RAD model? 
  • What is the advantage and disadvantage of a spiral model? 
  • List the benefits of software prototyping. 
  • What is ERD, DFD, and QFD? 
  • Explain stamp coupling and common coupling? 
  • State the main difference between Alpha and Beta testing? 
  • What do you know about CASE tools? 
  • Briefly define risk management and its importance. 


Domain-specific questions 

Based on your qualifications, interviewers may ask you questions to evaluate your problem-solving abilities and coding knowledge. 

Technical software engineering 

Under this field, they might ask you questions on algorithms and data structures to evaluate your baseline knowledge about these fundamental topics. 

  • What process do you follow to deliver a programming task? 
  • What are responsive designs and their types? 
  • How do you test for bugs in an application software? 
  • Do you have any experience with an Agile software development process? 
  • Describe QuickSort by using Big O Notation. 
  • Mention the difference between an array and a stack. 
  • What do you know about Dijkstra’s shortest path? 
  • Create an algorithm in JavaScript to display your data structuring abilities. 


Quiz-style web developer questions

In this field, you might come across questions concerning freelancing in web-development just like mystery rooms, rather than straight-up algorithm questions. 

  • Explain web workers in Html5. 
  • What are the pros and cons of organizing CSS files? 
  • How does CORS work? 
  • Do you know any tricks to decrease the load time of a written web-application? 
  • How do you include your JavaScript into Html? 
  • Mention the difference between cookies and local storage. 
  • How can you decrease page load time? 
  • Name a few API’s provided by Html 5. 

 Cyber Security Questions

In this field, they will aim to analyze your ability to design firewalls and safeguard applications. 

  • What process do you follow to secure a server? 
  • Define DNS monitoring and its importance. 
  • Briefly explain HTTPS, SSL, and TLS. 
  • Explain the process of strengthening user authentication. 
  • State the difference between symmetric and asymmetric encryption. 
  • What do you know about traceroute? 


 Behavioural Questions  

In the above topics, interviewers cover the hard skills of a software engineering applicant. After they are done with that, they might ask questions concerning your soft skills as they are equally as important in a collaborative workspace. 

Some soft skills required by a software engineer are Problem-solving, the ability to pay attention to detail, multi-tasking, and communication. 

  • Are you capable of leading a team? 
  • What are your strengths and weaknesses in the field of computing and development? 
  • How do you overcome a software problem when you are working in a team? 
  • How would you explain computing to someone who is not familiar with technology? 
  • What do you do when you are not able to debug complicated software? 


To Wrap Up

In the end, when they are done with the technical side of the interview, they usually mellow it down with casual interview questions. This is also the perfect time for an interviewee to ask questions about the company, its policies, and benefits. Some of these questions are: 

  • Why did you choose our company? 
  • What are your accomplishments in your previous software engineering job? (If you are not a fresher) 
  • How do you envision the first few weeks as a software engineer? 
  • What do you expect from the company? 
  • Do you have any questions? 



The questions that have been covered in this article focus on the aspects of a software engineering job.  

Even if you do not answer all the questions elaborately, remember, confidence is key! After all, a company needs an individual who can tackle any situation with confidence and an unwavering spirit that enables him to persevere and it can be enhanced in mystery sites like a breakout. This comes in handy especially if you are a fresher on the lookout for experience and growth.  

Good luck with your future endeavours! 


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Tips to Make a Good Impression in a Virtual Job Interview

Doubtlessly that for some job seekers, interviewing is the scariest piece of the cycle. In any case, imagine a scenario in which you could do it from the solace of home.

For some businesses, virtual interviewing is the future—regardless of whether you live far away or need to interview distantly for another explanation, video conferencing is a simple fix that numerous organizations use when meeting up-and-comers “up close and personal.” 

While video interviewing doesn’t take into consideration some dependable strategies for establishing a decent connection, such as giving a confident handshake, there are numerous approaches to wow your likely supervisor from behind a screen.

Just follow this manual for prepping and leaving a wonderful mark on your video interview aptitudes. 

Plan ahead of time 

Make certain to do your exploration of the business early! Sign in to Handshake and look at their profile, perused audits from peers who’ve worked or interned there, and scope out late news inclusion of the association for advancements. The better prepared you are to pose insightful inquiries, the smoother your discussion will go all through the interview. 

Additionally utilize this opportunity to audit your resume and the expected set of responsibilities, and consider how your previous experience may assist you with surpassing in the job. Having this data new in your brain will assist you with feeling more certain during the video call. 

Appear on schedule 

This is probably the simplest approach to begin things off on the correct foot: appear on schedule! While you don’t have to sign on 15-minutes early as you would while showing up for an in-office interview, unquestionably enter the video talk speedily at the set beginning time. To guarantee that everything goes easily, ensure that you have the right programming stacked (if fundamental), and consider a test call with a confided in companion to work out any wrinkles in your association. 

Dress for progress, even distantly 

Ensure that you look cleaned and proficient — at any rate up top. (The magnificence of video calls is that no one will know whether you wear running pants with your Oxford shirt and tie!) Consider a button-up shirt or pullover, and make certain to prepare similarly as nicely as you would for an in-person meeting. Not exclusively will this assist you with establishing an incredible connection with your interviewer, yet wearing garments that cause you to feel sure will likewise assist you with getting your head in the game! 

Consider your experience 

You presumably wouldn’t welcome your future manager over to your home if it was tossed with socks, correct? So don’t let them see that on record! Locate a perfect, calm zone of your living space where you can accept the call. Make certain to talk with any housemates ahead of time to guarantee that no one will stroll behind you or make boisterous commotions while you’re trying to examine your expert qualities and shortcomings. 

Make “eye to eye connection” with the camera 

If it helps, consider putting some googly eyes close to your webcam to remind you to take a gander at it all through the call. This gives the presence of visually connecting, not distractedly gazing at your screen! Visually connecting, regardless of whether through a PC, helps encourage a feeling of certified association and mindfulness; it can have a significant effect when attempting to become friends with your interviewer. 

Remain centered and noticeably locked in 

One approach to show your interviewer that you’re persuaded and drawn in is by rehearsing undivided attention. Think about gesturing your head to give certifications of comprehension while they talk, and posing explaining inquiries when fundamental. Additionally, take transcribed notes! Keep a journal close by so you can write down inquiries or key takeaways from the interview without upsetting the progression of the discussion with noisy composing. 

Try not to depend on a cheat sheet, yet be readied 

In the event that pertinent, be set up to share your portfolio or instances of work to your interviewer; keep a few tabs good to go and offer to share your screen if the theme comes up. Additionally, go to the interview with questions that you’d prefer to ask your interviewer. This shows activity and authentic interest. 

Make sure to remain responsive after you wave farewell 

After you end your call, be certain not to “phantom” your interviewer. Download the Handshake application to guarantee that you react to scout messages immediately, and browse your email, at any rate, two times a day to remain side by side of any effort or following stages that may land in your inbox! 

With these tips in your back pocket, you’ll have all the keys to prevail in your video interview. Presently you should simply locate the correct chance! Look at this accommodating guidance for getting a new line of work or entry-level position on the web, and find approaches to benefit as much as possible from a distant temporary job whenever you have an offer.

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Pre-Employment Assessment Gets you the Right Candidate – Yes or No?

Imagine a scenario wherein you hire a particular employee for a particular position which involves giving a lot of presentations to the clients. Now imagine if he/she fails to do so once hired and is unable to speak up in front of a gathering.  

You definitely would not want to land in such a pickle.

Same way, you would not want to hire a programming language specialist who does not know about the programming languages listed by them on their resume.

So how can you really ensure that the people whom you hire have not just bluffed and made-up stuff in their resume?

A formal background check is a very good start at ensuring that this does not happen but you need to take further actions in order to avoid mishaps which are similar to the ones listed above.

This is where pre-employment assessment comes into the picture. Several companies these days have started analysing the candidate’s capabilities by conducting certain suitable pre-employment assessment tests.

If you wish to do the same, you need to keep the following things in mind while carrying out a pre-employment assessment test.

  • Only ask the shortlisted candidates to prepare for the pre-employment assessment test as it is not fair to ask the ones who are going to be rejected for the job position.
  • Ensure that the time required to prepare for the assessment test is not more than an hour or so.
  • Whatever work is produced by the candidate during the pre-employment assessment test should never be used as your work product unless you are willing to pay for it. For instance, if you are testing a graphic designer, do not use the logo created by them during the test as a logo for your customer. This is stealing someone’s work and should be absolutely avoided.
  • The pre-employment assessment test designed by you must be directly related to the job. For instance, a test to gauge the basic mathematical knowledge may be necessary for a cashier but the same cannot be used to test the abilities of a candidate who is being selected to collect carts.

Different types of Pre-Employment Assessment Tests

There are several pre-employment testing companies like eSkill that can help you in designing pre-employment assessment tests.

You can either use their assistance or you can design them yourself by understanding the different forms of pre-employment assessment tests given below.

  • Internal technical skill test

You can easily spot the technical skills on any resume. However, this test is necessary because it is one thing to claim to know certain technical skills in a resume and an entirely different thing to actually possess the capability to back those claims.

While the resume of the candidate may look very impressive, you need to ensure that they are able to demonstrate their skills through a pre-employment assessment test. 

This is because there is always a possibility that they may have exaggerated their skills on their resume.

  • Presentation skill test

In order to assess a candidate’s presentation skills, you hardly need 10-15 minutes. During the test make sure that you gauge their performance based on the below points.

  1. Is the candidate handling themselves well during the presentation?
  2. Does the candidate have the ability to create powerful ppt slides?
  3. Is the candidate able to answer questions while doing the presentation without losing track?
  4. Is the candidate speaking coherently and clearly?
  • Customer service test

The best way to assess a candidate in this field would be to pose as a customer and allow the candidate to handle your questions. Find out how the candidate is reacting when you as a customer start behaving irately.

Also, assess how the candidate is making the customer feel. Check if they are listening to all the queries patiently or not.

Remember that the candidate has not been trained according to the protocols set in your company. You just have to ensure that they are capable enough to learn and train under this field and do a good job.

  • Analytical skill test

There are plenty of analytical roles in every company. First, make a note of what exactly the candidate needs to analyze in your company. Prepare a small assessment test based on this and ask the candidate to write a report as an analyst for this.

You can check how well they can analyze and understand whatever is going on.

Pre-employment assessment tests are certainly a great way to get the right kind of employee for your company for different job titles.

Keep the above points in mind while designing a pre-employment assessment test for potential employees to get the best person for a particular role.

While picking an employee, keep in mind that the business is changing and it is always better to hire an employee who can learn advanced skills rather than an employee who is only able to do the given job perfectly today.

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Tips for an Online Interview

Online interviews are nothing new. It came about as a practical and convenient solution for interviewing prospective employees living a couple of states away, and flying in for a physical interview was just not feasible. It was more for headhunted or high-ranking positions and rarely for entry-level or rank-and-file vacancies.

Due to the recent drastic economic changes caused by the pandemic, more and more employers are adapting to work-from-home set-ups or remote office locations. Online interviews went from a luxury of convenience to economic necessity. Remote jobs need remote job interviews. Unavoidably, it has always been an employer’s worry if employees are maximizing the 8-hour workday and putting in the work.

Like any other interviews, employers can not be sure of the former until they see you in action. And that is way well after the hiring process. What sets their mind at ease is your impression during the interview – in person or online. Some people may find it more challenging to capture the audience online versus in person. Fret not. Here are surefire tips for your online interview.

1# Dress the part

The basic rule of wearing an appropriate outfit for an in-person interview still applies to remote job interviews. Dressing the part means dressing for what’s suitable for the job and position you are aiming for at that time. An appropriate outfit could mean a corporate suit or a chic pastel dress shirt that compliments your most charming asset. While most choose only to dress up what will be visible on camera, i.e. the top part and forgetting about the rest, wearing the full outfit from head to toe helps put your mindset fully to a successful interview. Wearing heels even if you’re just at home and your interviewer is not likely to see what you’re wearing from the waist down boosts confidence and does help you put in the zone of acing that interview and bagging that job.

Keep in mind as well that your outfit must be visually pleasing as this will be one of the first things that the interviewer will see. Make that good first impression. Wear color combinations or patterns that are pleasing to the eyes. Solid and neutral-colored outfits are a safe bet versus brightly colored or patterned clothes that may be off-putting for the person conducting the interview.

2# Eliminate distractions

Be it visual or auditory distractions, prep your surroundings before the interview to ensure that there are none. Ensure your background is clean and tidy—no clutter or unnecessary items that are visible. Close the doors, windows, or any access where sound can pass or anyone else can walk in to. Sound travels fast and through just about anything. Ensure that your television, radio, mobile phones, or any other devices are switched off or in silent mode to avoid it causing interruptions mid-interview.

3# Check and double-check your tools

A stable internet connection and a working computer is a must. Do a video test, including checking if your camera’s lens is clean and clear of smudges. Make a sound; check to see if your internal microphone is perfectly functional. Adjust the volume of your speaker ahead of time so you are not tinkering with it during the interview. Check your audio input with your headset to ensure this is functioning as well. There’s nothing worse than getting into important topics/conversations, and the audio cuts out, or the video is frozen. Remember, the recruiter’s time is valuable. Any second wasted can make or break your possible employment, so spend an hour or two ensuring these do not happen.

4# Be engaging

Being engaging is like an exciting game of ping-pong. Conversations naturally flow back and forth. Do your research. Ask relevant questions (prepare most ahead of time) and give straight-to-the-point answers.

While being as prepared as you possibly can be about the position you’re applying for such as having ample information about the company’s brand & culture, possible questions the interviewer will ask, and everything else in between is a given, take the time in researching about the interviewer.

Usually, once an interview is scheduled, you are informed ahead of time who will be conducting the interview—knowing a little background about who the interviewer is will be helpful to your advantage. Engage the interviewer by casually talking about personal interests or information you’ve picked up relevant to the topic on hand.

While doing this, keep your eyes forward or on the camera as much as possible and avoid fiddling around. Doing so will give the recruiter the impression that you’re either bored, unfocused, or impatient. Instead, keep your hands on your lap, or you can utilize appropriate hand gestures when it’s your turn to talk.

5# Express your ability to be both an independent worker and team player with clear communication skills

Gone are the days when recruiters prefer employees who can work independently or better with a team. Recruiters prefer both.

Working from home forces you to be isolated from your colleagues and with little to zero in-person supervision, but that does not mean collaborating and working as a team is out of the picture. Having both abilities is half the battle.

Working from home means having to communicate with your colleagues through instant messaging most of the time, with occasional phone and video calls. During the interview, be mindful of how you respond and interact with the interviewer.

6# Display trustworthiness and dependability

It’s unavoidable for employers to be wary with transitioning employees to remote jobs. During the interview, always find an opportunity to showcase to the recruiter that you are trustworthy and dependable.

This will speak for itself by going through your work history and highlighting previous projects or activities you have done wherein your input and guidance was crucial to its success.

6# Say “Thank you”

Time is precious. Express your appreciation that the recruiter took the time in talking with you. Be grateful for their assistance in enlightening you about the company and the position that you’re applying for. “Thank you for giving me your time today.

It was so wonderful meeting you and I’m looking forward to hearing from you again soon!”

Online interviews may be more convenient, but you can never be too sure about what hindrances or issues may arise in the process. Minimize, if not eliminate, problems by keeping in mind the tips above for that successful online interview.

Post solely written for interviewsortout.com by Barbara Rivera

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For cracking a job interview, you need more than just the expertise and knowledge to apply. You will have to show that you are pleasant to work with, adaptable and optimistic. And nothing more than being properly equipped helps build morale.

Here we’ll share the best and top JOB interview preparation apps, which will help you save your precious time and make productive use of it for comprehensive training. Such applications will certainly help you stay in the right direction and land in the right career you’ve got your sights on, as well as relax and succeed.

1# Wordzen

Make sure every email with Wordzen, an executive assistant to your Gmail account, is polished and competent. Wordzen editors can turn short-hand notes into qualified emails by pressing the “smart submit” button after a preliminary draft is written. Also, this service will guarantee proper English and correct tone, sentence form, and word usage. The whole process takes less than ten minutes to complete and is online.

Link: Wordzen

2# Pramp

Practice leads to perfection. You can hold advanced interviews with Pramp for free. Customize live video sessions by focussing on common vulnerabilities or unclear areas. The platform will have questions (and answers) about interviews that you and a paired colleague will be going through together. You’ll have positive feedback when the 30-minute session is complete.

Link: Pramp

3# Charlie

It will take hours to create well-rounded profiles of HR professionals. Give a lasting impact on every Charlie work interview. This hack would comb through hundreds of outlets and send you a one-page email briefing from recruiters and their firms. Charlie’s algorithm sifts dynamically through social media and highlights news from businesses, key rivals, and more.

Link: Charlie

4# My Top Tweet

Believe it or not, you will get a job with the help of Twitter!  My Top Tweet reveals the history, beliefs, and milestones of a business with ease. When the company’s name has been inserted into the search engine, this app will list the top ten tweets that work. The software also finds hidden content that you wouldn’t see on the company’s website, LinkedIn, or any other forum on social media. Having insider information of an organization in the career selection process is like finding gold making you an excellent candidate.

Link: My Top Tweet

5# Interview Sortout

Interview Sortout aim is to provide precise answers to the relevant interview questions that are being asked. This Website / Application is for work interviews (IT, bank, govt.interviews, scientific, etc.) of seekers who don’t know about the question to be answered. And it will surely provide you the answers to the question that the interviewer posed during an interview session. The material and answers are written by the experts, with no less than 5 years of experience in their field. 

It provides you with the ability to express your thoughts on how to make things better so that they can add more correct answers to the interview issue.

Link: Interview Sortout

6# Seeway

Reaching to your interview destination is always a very important aspect of how it goes. If you show up late, it might give off the impression that you’re not very punctual. Sometimes, public transport takes a while to reach a destination since it has to take a long route to cover all routes.

During such situations, it’s wise to book an online taxi or cab booking application like Seeway. Seeway helps people reach their destination faster and at very affordable rates.

Link: Seeway

7# Monster

Potential job applicants’ best know Monster as a job platform where they will look for employment prospects. However, they offer a free smartphone app that includes a tool segment called “Pre-Interview.” 

That’s Ok! To plan the next interview the section is filled to the brim with valuable advice, tips, communication approaches, and preparation materials. 

It also tells you to use a follow-up protocol after the interview is over. It is critical because you want to remain accessible to potential job applicants and recruiting officials at all times.

Link: Monster

8# Pacifica

Usually, no matter how hard you try, you’re unable to relax your nerves or alleviate tension. This can have a huge effect on your attitude and behavior, which will be seen during an interview. 

If you’re nervous and want to chill until the big day, Pacifica is a perfect app to help settle you down. It provides a range of relaxing devices and methods to keep you on an even keel. For instance, there’s a personal thought log that lets you recognize and fix skewed or negative thinking habits, a list of tools calming strategy, goals of daily wellbeing and mood, and monitoring.

Link: Pacifica

9# How to Tie a Tie

If you know how to knot a knot, then you are one of the few lucky ones. You’d be shocked how many people do not know how to complete such a simple mission, particularly the younger generations. Fortunately, How to Tie a Knot app shows you precisely how to do that. 

You can pick from a list of 20 traditional knots and follow a walkthrough to tie this specific style to a chain. When you skip a walkthrough segment, you can travel backward by frame-by-frame through the animated app. 

Needless to mention, should you need to wear a suit and tie for an interview, this is an invaluable app.

Link: How to Tie a Tie

10# Job Interviews Question-Answer

This immersive, CareerConfidential-created Android app will help you build the confidence you need to win your next interview. In mock interviews, users can practice difficult interview questions with Work Interview Question-Answer. There is also an opportunity for a recording that helps you to look back and decide if the responses you received are as good as possible. See technical career and mentor Peggy McKee answer every question and break down what an interviewer is asking for with the responses.

Link: Job Interviews Question-Answer


Nowadays, we all know about everything from our Android smartphones and there are various applications to achieve our jobs, as well as multiple apps that help us train for our work interviews.


If you just want to position yourself in highly prestigious firms then these are the perfect Smartphone applications to train for job interviews. As most of the renowned firms conduct interviews at a very difficult level.

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Python Interview Questions

Python is an interpreted, high-level, general-purpose programming language. Created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991, Python’s design philosophy emphasizes code readability with its notable use of significant whitespace. 

Nowadays the popularity of python is increasing day by day. Python is easy to learn and has vast libraries. In the field of Machine Learning, Deep Learning and Artificial Intelligence Python are the top priority in the implementation tool.  You can find on google the trends of top programming languages.

Since the demand and popularity are on top, so the career opportunity in Python programming and related fields is high. Keeping this in mind we have created a set of some useful Python Interview Questions and Answers, so that one may find a proper guide for an Interview. 

Python Interview Questions are very useful when you are going for an Interview for the designation of Python Developer or Machine Learning or any Related fields to Python. These python interview questions and answers are equally useful for freshers and experienced.

While representing this set of questions along with answers we hope that they will be useful for visitors.

What is Python?

Python is an Interpreted programming language with objects, modules, threads, exceptions and automatic memory management. The benefits of pythons are that it is simple and easy, portable, extensible, built-in data structure and it is open-source.

What are the key features of Python?

  • Python is an interpreted language. That means Python does not need to be compiled before it is run. 
  • Python is dynamically typed, this means that you don’t need to state the types of variables when you declare them or anything like that. 
  • Python is well suited to object-orientated programming in that it allows the definition of classes along with composition and inheritance. 
  • In Python, functions are first-class objects. This means that they can be assigned to variables, returned from other functions and passed into functions. Classes are also first-class objects
  • Writing Python code is quick but running it is often slower than compiled languages. Fortunately,Python allows the inclusion of C based extensions so bottlenecks can be optimized away and often are. 

What type of language is python? Programming or scripting?

Python is capable of scripting, but in a general sense, it is considered as a general-purpose programming language.

What is PEP 8?

PEP 8 is a coding convention, a set of recommendations about how to write your Python code more readable.

What are Python packages?

Python packages are namespaces containing multiple modules.

What is the difference between abs () and fabs ()?

abs() is a built-in function that works with integer, float and complex numbers also.

fabs() is defined in the math module which doesn’t work with complex numbers.

How Python is interpreted?

Python is an interpreted language because Python program runs directly from the source code. It converts the source code that is written by the programmer into an intermediate language, which is again translated into machine language that has to be executed.

How memory is managed in Python?

Python has an awesome feature of memory management. The following points will explain memory management in python:

  • Python memory is managed by Python private heap space. All Python objects and data structures are located in a private heap. The programmer does not have access to this private heap and the interpreter takes care of this Python private heap.
  • The allocation of Python heap space for Python objects is done by the Python memory manager. The core API gives access to some tools for the programmer to code.
  • Python also has an inbuilt garbage collector, which recycles all the unused memory and frees the memory and makes it available to the heap space.


What are the tools that help to find bugs or perform the static analysis?

PyChecker is a static analysis tool that detects bugs in Python source code and warns about the style and complexity of the bug. Pylint is another tool that verifies whether the module meets the coding standard.


What are Python decorators?

A Python decorator is a specific change that we make in Python syntax to alter functions easily.


What is the difference between list and tuple?

The difference between list and tuple is that the list is mutable while tuple is not. Tuple can be hashed for e.g as a key for dictionaries.


How are arguments passed by value or by reference?

Everything in Python is an object and all variables hold references to the objects. The reference values are according to the functions; as a result, you cannot change the value of the references. However, you can change the objects if it is mutable.


What is Dict and List comprehensions are?

They are syntax constructions to ease the creation of a Dictionary or List based on existing iterable.


What is the built-in type does python provides?

There are mutable and Immutable types of Pythons built-in types Mutable built-in types

  • List
  • Sets
  • Dictionaries

Immutable built-in types

  • Strings
  • Tuples
  • Numbers


What is namespace in Python?

In Python, every name introduced has a place where it lives and can be hooked for. This is known as a namespace. It is like a box where a variable name is mapped to the object placed. Whenever the variable is searched out, this box will be searched, to get the corresponding object.


What is the difference between deep and shallow copy?

Shallow copy is used when a new instance type gets created and it keeps the values that are copied in the new instance. Shallow copy is used to copy the reference pointers just like it copies the values. These references point to the original objects and the changes made in any member of the class will also affect the original copy of it. Shallow copy allows faster execution of the program and it depends on the size of the data that is used.

A deep copy is used to store the values that are already copied. The deep copy doesn’t copy the reference pointers to the objects. It makes the reference to an object and the new object that is pointed by some other object gets stored. The changes made in the original copy won’t affect any other copy that uses the object. Deep copy makes execution of the program slower due to making certain copies for each object that is been called.


What is lambda in Python?

It is a single expression anonymous function often used as an inline function.


Why lambda forms in python does not have statements?

A lambda form in python does not have statements as it is used to make a new function object and then return them at runtime.


Does python support multiple inheritances?

Multiple inheritances mean that a class can be derived from more than one parent class. Python does support multiple inheritances, unlike Java.


What is a pass in Python?

Pass means, no-operation Python statement, or in other words, it is a place holder in a compound statement, where there should be a blank left and nothing has to be written there.


What is Polymorphism in Python?

Polymorphism means the ability to take multiple forms. So, for instance, if the parent class has a method named ABC then the child class also can have a method with the same name ABC having its own parameters and variables. Python allows polymorphism.


What is encapsulation in Python?

Encapsulation means binding the code and the data together. A Python class is an example of encapsulation.


How do you do data abstraction in Python?

Data Abstraction is providing only the required details and hiding the implementation from the world. It can be achieved in Python by using interfaces and abstract classes.


How to use access specifiers?

Python does not deprive access to an instance variable or function. Python lays down the concept of prefixing the name of the variable, function or method with a single or double underscore to imitate the behavior of protected and private access specifiers.  


In Python what are iterators?

In Python, iterators are used to iterate a group of elements, containers like a list.


What is the unit test in Python?

A unit testing framework in Python is known as a unit test. It supports the sharing of setups, automation testing, shutdown code for tests, aggregation of tests into collections, etc.


Explain what Flask is and its benefits?

Flask is a web microframework for Python based on “Werkzeug, Jinja2 and good intentions” BSD license. Werkzeug and Jinja2 are two of its dependencies. This means it will have little to no dependencies on external libraries.  It makes the framework light while there is a little dependency to update and fewer security bugs.

A session basically allows you to remember information from one request to another. In a flask, a session uses a signed cookie so the user can look at the session contents and modify it. The user can modify the session if only it has the secret key Flask.secret_key.


In Python what is slicing?

A mechanism to select a range of items from sequence types like list, tuple, strings, etc. is known as slicing.


What are the generators in Python?

The way of implementing iterators are known as generators. It is a normal function except that it yields expression in the function.



It is an environment variable that is used when a module is imported. Whenever a module is imported, PYTHONPATH is also looked up to check for the presence of the imported modules in various directories. The interpreter uses it to determine which module to load.


What is type conversion in Python?

Type conversion refers to the conversion of one data type into another.

int() : converts any data type into integer type

float() : converts any data type into float type

ord() : converts characters into integer

hex() : converts integers to hexadecimal

oct() : converts integer to octal

tuple() : This function is used to convert to a tuple.

set() : This function returns the type after converting to set.

list() : This function is used to convert any data type to a list type.

dict() : This function is used to convert a tuple of order (key,value) into a dictionary.

str() : Used to convert integer into a string.


What is docstring in Python?

A Python documentation string is known as docstring, it is a way of documenting Python functions, modules and classes.


How can you copy an object in Python?

To copy an object in Python, you can try copy.copy () or copy.deepcopy() for the general case. You cannot copy all objects but most of them.


What is a negative index in Python?

Python sequences can be index in positive and negative numbers. For positive index, 0 is the first index, 1 is the second index and so forth. For negative index, (-1) is the last index and (-2) is the second last index and so forth.


How you can convert a number to a string?

In order to convert a number into a string, use the inbuilt function str(). If you want an octal or hexadecimal representation, use the inbuilt function oct() or hex().


What is the difference between Xrange and range?

Xrange returns the xrange object while range returns the list, and uses the same memory and no matter what the range size is.


Mention the differences between Django, Pyramid, and Flask.

  • Flask is a “microframework” primarily build for a small application with simpler requirements. In a flask, you have to use external libraries. Flask is ready to use.
  • Pyramid is built for larger applications. It provides flexibility and lets the developer use the right tools for their project. The developer can choose the database, URL structure, templating style and more. Pyramid is heavy configurable.
  • Django can also be used for larger applications just like Pyramid. It includes an ORM.


What is module and package in Python?

In Python, module is the way to structure program. Each Python program file is a module, which imports other modules like objects and attributes.

The folder of Python program is a package of modules. A package can have modules or subfolders.


Why indentation required in python?

Indentation is necessary for Python. It specifies a block of code. All code within loops, classes, functions, etc is specified within an indented block. It is usually done using four space characters. If your code is not indented necessarily, it will not execute accurately and will throw errors as well.


Mention what are the rules for local and global variables in Python?

Local variables: If a variable is assigned a new value anywhere within the function’s body, it’s assumed to be local.

Global variables: Those variables that are only referenced inside a function are implicitly global.

List out the inheritance styles in Django.

In Django, there are three possible inheritance styles:

  1. Abstract Base Classes: This style is used when you only want the parent’s class to hold information that you don’t want to type out for each child model.
  2. Multi-table Inheritance: This style is used If you are sub-classing an existing model and need each model to have its own database table.
  3. Proxy models: You can use this model, If you only want to modify the Python level behavior of the model, without changing the model’s fields.


Why are local variable names beginning with an underscore discouraged?

  • they are used to indicate a private variables of a class
  • they confuse the interpreter
  • they are used to indicate global variables
  • they slow down execution


What is the purpose of the PYTHONCASEOK environment variable?

PYTHONCASEOK − It is used in Windows to instruct Python to find the first case-insensitive match in an import statement. Set this variable to any value to activate it.


Explain how can you make a Python Script executable on Unix?

To make a Python Script executable on Unix, you need to do two things,

  • Script file’s mode must be executable and
  • the first line must begin with # ( #!/usr/local/bin/python)

How can you share global variables across modules?

To share global variables across modules within a single program, create a special module. Import the config module in all modules of your application. The module will be available as a global variable across modules.


What are the supported data types in Python?

Python has five standard data types −

  • Numbers
  • String
  • List
  • Tuple
  • Dictionary


Explain how to delete a file in Python?

By using a command os.remove (filename) or os.unlink(filename)


Explain how you can generate random numbers in Python?

To generate random numbers in Python, you need to import command as

import random


This returns a random floating-point number in the range [0,1)


What is self in Python?


Self is an instance of an object of a class. In Python, this is explicitly included as the first parameter. However, this is not the case in Java where it’s optional.  It helps to differentiate between the methods and attributes of a class with local variables.

The self variable in the init method refers to the newly created object while in other methods, it refers to the object whose method was called.


What are tuples in Python?

A tuple is another sequence data type that is similar to the list. A tuple consists of a number of values separated by commas. Unlike lists, however, tuples are enclosed within parentheses.


How will you check if all characters in a string are alphanumeric?

We will use the method isalnum().


Does Python allow you to program in a structured style?

Yes. It does allow to code is structured as well as Object-oriented style. It offers excellent flexibility to design and implement your application code depending on the requirements of your application.


Explain how can you access a module written in Python from C?

You can access a module written in Python from C by following method,

Module = =PyImport_ImportModule(“<modulename>”);


Mention the use of // operator in Python?

It is a Floor Divisionoperator, which is used for dividing two operands with the result as quotient showing only digits before the decimal point. For instance, 10//5 = 2 and 10.0//5.0 = 2.0.


Mention five benefits of using Python?

  • Python comprises of a huge standard library for most Internet platforms like Email, HTML, etc.
  • Python does not require explicit memory management as the interpreter itself allocates the memory to new variables and free them automatically
  • Provide easy readability due to use of square brackets
  • Easy-to-learn for beginners

What is module and package in Python?

In Python, module is the way to structure program. Each Python program file is a module, which imports other modules like objects and attributes.

The folder of the Python program is a package of modules. A package can have modules or subfolders.


What is difference between pickling and unpickling?

Pickle module accepts any Python object and converts it into a string representation and dumps it into a file by using a dump function, this process is called pickling. While the process of retrieving original Python objects from the stored string representation is called unpickling.

  • Having the built-in data types saves programming time and effort from declaring variables


What is a dictionary in Python?

Ans: The built-in data types in Python are called the dictionary. It defines one-to-one relationships between keys and values. Dictionaries contain a pair of keys and their corresponding values. Dictionaries are indexed by keys.


Mention the use of the split function in Python?

The use of the split function in Python is that it breaks a string into shorter strings using the defined separator. It gives a list of all the words present in the string.


What tools can be used to unit test your Python code?

The best and easiest way is to use ‘unittest’ python standard library to test units/classes. The features supported are very similar to the other unit testing tools such as JUnit, TestNG.


What is the starting point of Python code execution?

As Python is an interpreter, it starts reading the code from the source file and starts executing them.


Explain what is Flask & its benefits?

Flask is a web microframework for Python based on “Werkzeug, Jinja 2 and good intentions” BSD licensed. Werkzeug and jinja are two of its dependencies.

Flask is part of the micro-framework. Which means it will have little to no dependencies on external libraries. It makes the framework light while there is a little dependency to update and fewer security bugs.


Mention what is the difference between Django, Pyramid, and Flask?

Flask is a “microframework” primarily build for a small application with simpler requirements. In flask, you have to use external libraries. Flask is ready to use.

The pyramid is built for larger applications. It provides flexibility and lets the developer use the right tools for their project. The developer can choose the database, URL structure, templating style and more. The pyramid is heavily configurable.

Like Pyramid, Django can also used for larger applications. It includes an ORM.


How to comment on multiple lines in python?

Multi-line comments appear in more than one line. All the lines to be commented are to be prefixed by a #. You can also a very good shortcut method to comment on multiple lines. All you need to do is hold the ctrl key and left-click in every place wherever you want to include a # character and type a # just once. This will comment on all the lines where you introduced your cursor.


Which module(s) of Python can be used to measure the performance of your application code?

Time module can be used to calculate the time at different stages of your application and use the Logging module to log data to a file system in any preferred format.


Mention what is Flask-WTF and what are their features?

Flask-WTF offers simple integration with WTForms. Features include for Flask WTF are

  • Integration with wtforms
  • Secure form with csrf token
  • Global csrf protection
  • Internationalization integration
  • Recaptcha supporting
  • File upload that works with Flask Uploads


Does the same Python code work on multiple platforms without any changes?

As long as you have the Python environment on your target platform (Linux, Windows, Mac), you can run the same code.

How do you make use of Arrays in Python?

Python does not support Arrays. However, you can use List collection type which can store an unlimited number of elements.

Explain what is the common way for the Flask script to work?

The common way for the flask script to work is

  • Either it should be the import path for your application
  • Or the path to a Python file


What are the different environment variables identified by Python?

PYTHONPATH: This environment variable helps the interpreter as to where to locate the module files imported in the program.

PYTHONSTARTUP: This environment variable contains the path of the Initialization file containing the source code.

PYTHONCASEOK: This variable is used to find the first case-insensitive match in the import statement


Explain how you can access sessions in Flask?

A session basically allows you to remember information from one request to another. In a flask, it uses a signed cookie so the user can look at the session contents and modify them. The user can modify the session if only it has the secret key Flask.secret_key.


What are a help () and dir() in python?

help() is a built-in function that can be used to return the Python documentation of a particular object, methods, attributes, etc.

dir() displays a list of attributes for the objects which are passed as an argument. If dir() is without the argument then it returns a list of names in current local space.


What is the difference between locals() and globals ()?

locals() is accessed within the function and it returns all names that can be accessed locally from that function.


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HR Interview Tips to make a good impression at the job interview

Congratulations, you have been called for an interview! It means that your cover letter and resume have selected and recruiters and HR managers want to know more about you. For many people, a job interview is extremely stressful. The best weapon to overcome tension and do a successful interview is proper preparation. Here’s how to prepare for HR recruiter interview questions and answers for fresher candidates with some tips to make a great impression at the interview!

Practice what you say

Integrate with examples from your experience that highlight why you are the right person for that position. If there are specific events or relevant points to report, write them down, and try to understand how to integrate them into the answers. Ask a friend to help you with the preparation and get you to do some practice in the answers, to achieve greater ease and face the successful interview.

Be Punctual and Prepared for the Interview

  • Being punctual is an absolute must to give a good impression to the interviewer.
  • Few things create a more negative impression than arriving late.
  • Try to arrive 10-15 minutes before the scheduled time.
  • Plan the route in advance, always taking into account any delays.
  • Make sure you have all the necessary documents and forms.
  • If you have already sent your resume by e-mail, bring a paper copy to the interview.
  • Also, take note of the name of the person you are about to meet with.

Pay attention to the dress code

What you wear during an interview plays an important role in how you are perceived. Your appearance does not belong only to you, keep in mind that if you were to be hired, you would represent the company you work for. Take the time to understand what the dress code of the company is. If you are not sure, instead turn to something very classy to create a good impression. Do not show too much skin, make sure the clothes are washed and ironed well, and avoid flashy jewelry.

Start great

  • To make a good impression, start with a genuine smile and a vigorous handshake.
  • Greet your interviewer by name, have your say, and make eye contact from the start.
  • Enter the room with a casual attitude and maintain good posture.
  • Try to radiate trust and remember, the interviewer also wants this phase to proceed at its best.

Check body language and tone

  • During the interview or the meeting, be positive in both tone and posture.
  • Sit upright, talk to the speaker, and establish frequent eye contact.
  • Talk with enthusiasm and confidence if you want to make a good impression.
  • Avoid laughing nervously, if possible, and give concise answers to the topic you are talking about or the specific question.

A warm greeting and a follow-up are essential to leave a good impression at the interview

The way you leave a room is as important as the one you enter. Leave a last good impression at the interview with another vigorous handshake and a genuine “thank you.”

Remember that dedicating yourself to the follow-up of an interview denotes ambition, then one or two days later, you send a friendly and short e-mail to your interviewer, where once again you can thank and reiterate your interest in the job position.

So how these HR Interview tips were? Any interviews you’ve nailed? Bombed even? Talk about it in the comment section and share your experiences.

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Stack Interview Questions

The stack is always a favourite part of the interviewer in any programming interview. Stack has an important place in Linear data structure and used to implement complex solutions. Stack Interview Questions are the best collection of concepts and questions asked in the data structure Interview.

Stacks are important part of data structures and comes under abstract data structures. They allow access to only one data item at a time and that is the last item inserted.

Since internally other data structures are used by stack, they are abstract data type. Stacks use array. Stacks are useful to perform many operations in other data types.
Few examples of Stack implementation:

  • Stack is used by Binary trees in traversing of nodes.
  • Stack is used by Graphs in searching the vertices of the graph.
  • Stacks can be used to process tasks, messages etc.

To crack Stack interview and to give perfect answers to stack interview questions and answers, It is very important to have basic concepts of stack and other data types like array.

Here we have given the basic concept of stack and implementation of stack using C language.

While keeping in mind the practical implementation and complexity we have given plenty of examples of stack implementation and operations using C Programming.

What is a Stack?

A stack is a linear data structure and represented a list of the element in which an element may be inserted or deleted only from one end, called the top of the stack.

Elements in the stack are arranged in a linear fashion. Unlike an array, we can not access an element randomly.

According to the behaviour of Stack, we can have two important operations

  1. PUSH and
  2. POP

Insertion of an element in the stack from the top is called PUSH and removal of an element from the stack is called POP.

We can only access the last element inserted in a Stack. Hence We can say an Item can either Inserted or Deleted At only one end of the stack and that end is the TOP. This is why We called it a LIFO – Last In First Out.

Main Features of Stack

  1. The stack is a Linear type data structure
  2. Allow only the last element to access
  3. Random access of element is not allowed
  4. The stack is an ordered list of similar data type
  5. When a stack is completely full it is called Overflow Stack and If completely empty it is called Underflow Stack.
  6. A stack is a recursive data structure. Here is a structural definition of a Stack:
    1. a stack is either empty or
    2. it consisted of a top and the rest which is a stack;

Application of Stack

  • We can use stack reverse a string. You push a given string to stack – character by character – and then POP character from the stack.
  • Undo Operations in the text editor is an application of stack PUSH and POP.

Basic Operations on Stack

Stack allowed the following operation with data stored it with:

  1. Push operation
  2. Pop operation
  3. Peek operation
  4. isFull
  5. isEmpty

Algorithm for PUSH Operation in Stack

Consider MAX represents the last position of the element to be inserted and TOP is the current position. TOP initially points to 0.

Algorithm POP Operation in Stack

The function will return the popped value from the stack

Implementation of Stack

The stack can be implemented as

  1. Using Array
  2. Using a Linked list

Array and linked list both are used to implement a stack. Both have some advantages and disadvantages associated with them. Here are some relative comparisons between these two.

  • The array is a collection of similar data types elements while the linked list is a collection of elements of the same type connected to each other by pointers.
  • Array consumes memory in a contiguous manner. Also, the size of array is decided at compile time. This kind of memory allocation is called Static memory allocation. But in case of linked list memory allocated at runtime. The size of the list can be increased or decreased at runtime. This kind of memory allocation is called dynamic memory allocation.
  • The size of the array is fixed. Memory allocated as soon as the array is declared. In the case of a linked list, size can grow or shrink. 
  • In array, due to memory allocation in contiguous in manner, insertion and deletion take more time in comparison to linked list.
  • Accessing an element in an array is faster. Also, any element of an array can be easily accessed by using indexing. This is not in the case of a linked list. You have to transverse from the starting point to access any element.


Implement Stack using an Array

A working Example of Implementation of Stack using Array

Implement Stack using a Linked list

A working Example of Implementation of Stack using Linked List

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Tree Data structures Interview Questions for Freshers

The tree is a nonlinear data structure and a very important part of computer programming. It is a very flexible, versatile and powerful data structure.

The tree can be used to represent data items possessing hierarchical relationships. Items in a tree are arranged as interconnected nodes and edges.

There is a special data item known as root and rest are known as subtrees. This segment is based on the Tree data structure Interview Questions asked in various programming interviews.

The tree data structure is an important part of data structure and played a very vital role in solving complex problems.

This segment is based on concepts and theory of Trees Data structure and very helpful for fresher candidates in an interview.

What are the main applications of Trees?

A tree is a hierarchical representation of data and a non-linear data structure. Hence it has application according to its properties :

  • To Represent hierarchical data
  • To Store data in a sorted fashion
  • To make the searching process easy

What is root?

The first item in the hierarchy is known as the root and it is placed at the top of the tree. A root is known as root is known and it is a terminal node having a degree greater than zero.

What is a node?

Each item in a tree is known as a Node. Nodes are connected to each other and hence they have a degree.

What is the degree of node?

The degree is known as the connectivity of a node. The number of subtrees connected to a node is known as the Degree of Node.

In the Given Tree :

  • Degree of A = 3
  • Degree of B = 0
  • Degree of D = 2
  • Degree of E = 0
  • Degree of F = 0

What is the Degree of Tree?

There are several nodes in a tree data structure.
Each Node has its degree, the number of the connected subtrees.
The degree of the node having the maximum degree is Known as the Degree of Tree.
For Example in the above tree, the Degree of Tree is 3, because the degree of Node A is 3 and It is maximum.

What are siblings?

Nodes having common parents are siblings.
We can say the nodes remain at the same level in a tree are siblings if they are connected to a common node.
The common node is known as Parent.
For Example, D is parent and E and F are siblings.

What is the edge?

The line which is connecting two nodes is known as Edge.

What is the path in a tree?

If we select a node as the source and another as a destination node, then the sequence of the node between these two nodes is known as path.

  • There may be many possible sequences so there may be many paths between two nodes.
  • The path is represented as node pairs. For example, in the given Tree structure the path between A and G is (A, D) (D, E) (E, G).

What is a forest?

The set of Disjointed trees is known as a forest.
When several subtrees are there and they are not joined by a root then this set is known as a forest.

What is a binary tree?

A tree is a special case of a tree when any node can not have more than 2 children.

Each node can have at most two children.

We can structure a binary tree in three parts

  1. Root
  2. Left subtree
  3. Right Subtree

How many types of binary trees are there?

The most popular types of binary trees are as follows :

  • Full Binary Tree
  • Complete Binary Tree
  • Perfect Binary Tree

Full Binary Tree

A Binary Tree will be known as the full binary tree if each node of the tree has either two children or zero children.

The node having zero children is known as a leaf node, so a Full Binary tree is a tree where all nodes have two children except the leaf nodes.

A binary tree having every level is completed except the leaf nodes,


Perfect Binary Tree

In a Perfect Binary tree, all the internal nodes have two children and all the leaf nodes are at the same depth.


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PHP Advanced Interview Questions and Answers For Experienced

We brought here some advanced PHP interview questions that need special attention while preparing for an Interview.

We have collected these questions and answers from various sources and candidates have been appeared in multiple PHP Developer Interviews.

These questions are useful for Freshers searching jobs for PHP developers and also for the people looking for a change having 2+ years experience.

Find the latest PHP MySQL interview questions and answers for experienced in 2020.

These are not pure practical based questions but they have a huge impact on your selection for the right job.

How we can set default time-zone in PHP?
Using library function date_default_timezone_set() we can set default time-zone:

<?php date_default_timezone_set("America/New_York"); echo "Time in Default Zone is : " . date("h:i:sa"); ?>

What is difference between == and === ?
Both are the comparison operator. The first one (==) is ‘Equal to’ and the second one (===) is ‘identical to’. ‘Equal to’ is used to compare the values of variables. ‘Identical to’ is used to compare values as well as the type of variables.

For Example :

<?php $x = 1250; $y = '1250'; if($x==$y){ echo 'X and Y are Equal'; }else{ echo 'X and Y are Not equal'; } if($x===$y){ echo 'X and Y are Identical'; }else{ echo 'X and Y are Not Identical'; } ?>

What is difference between != and !== ?
Both are the comparison operator. The first one (!=) is ‘Not Equal’ and second one (!==) is ‘Not identical’. ‘Not equal’ is used to compare the values of variables. ‘Not Identical’ is used to compare values as well as the type of variables.

For Example :

<?php $x = 1250; $y = '1250'; if($x!=$y){ echo 'X and Y are Not equal'; }else{ echo 'X and Y are Equal'; } if($x!==$y){ echo 'X and Y are Not Identical'; }else{ echo 'X and Y are Identical'; } ?>

How do I get PHP Errors to display?
Use the following code snippet to on error reporting in a PHP script:

	ini_set('display_errors', 1);
	ini_set('display_startup_errors', 1);

But we can not display PHP parse error this way. We need to modify php.ini file and need to ‘on’ the display error:

display_errors = on

What is the difference between Notice Errors and Warning Errors in PHP?
Notice and Warning are the Non-fatal Errors and Not let the script halted.
Notice is an Advisory message regarding what you should prefer to do with this line of code.
For example, using an undefined variable is a Notice.




The warning is the message saying that you are going wrong and that may cause an error in the future so, you may correct that. For example, including a not existing script will throw a Warning.



What is the use of break and continue in the PHP loop?
Break: It terminates the loop and exit from the iteration.

Continue: It escapes the current iteration and starts a new iteration in the loop.

What are the common types of errors that occur in Php execution?

Php has Identified numbers of Error detection categories. Following are the common errors in PHP:

E_ERROR: A fatal error and halts the script from further execution.

E_WARNING: Run time warning that detects something is wrong that you need to correct to avoid future errors.

E_PARSE: Compilation error when the code is parsed. We need to on the error reporting in php.ini file to get this.

E_NOTICE: Run time notice to notify that you should go follow the suggested message.

E_CORE_ERROR: It is a fatal error that halts the script and occurs at the initial startup of PHP.

E_CORE_WARNING: Warnings that occurs at the initial startup of PHP.

E_COMPILE_ERROR: Fatal error on compilation occurs at the initial startup of PHP.

E_USER_ERROR : User-generated error message.

E_USER_WARNING: User-generated warning message.

E_USER_NOTICE: User-generated notice message.

E_STRICT: Run-time notices.

E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR: Catchable fatal error indicating a dangerous error

E_ALL: Catches all errors and warnings

Difference between mysql_connect and mysql_pconnect?
When mysql_pconnect() is used to create and maintain a persistent connection to the database that means a SQL link that does not close when the execution of your script ends whereas mysql_connect() creates a new connection each time when it called.

When a persistent connection is created and again a connection request is called the mysql_pconnect() return the earlier established connection rather than creating a new instance of connection.

What do you understand by &$name?
Using the reference of the variable rather than a copy of that.

If we pass the reference of a variable in a function as an argument and the value is changed then the value of the original variable outside the function is also changed.

This is passing by reference.

What is New in PHP 7?
PHP 7 has many new features. Here is the list of PHP 7 New features:

  • Scalar type declarations
  • Return type declarations
  • Null coalescing operator
  • Spaceship operator
  • Constant arrays using define()
  • Anonymous classes
  • Unicode codepoint escape syntax
  • Closure::call()
  • Group use declarations

When you are going for a PHP Developer job you should also focus on Jquery Interview Questions, PHP-MySQL Interview Questions, PHP Functions asked in Interviews.
I hope you enjoyed learning. You can ask any question based on the Above topic or you can submit questions here in the comment box.

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CakePHP 4.0.0 alpha is released

The new and most awaited version of the rapid development framework is released by the core team of CakePHP.

The alpha released yet is not recommended for development purpose, until the stable version come. Removing the drawbacks and implementing new features , library support and improved performance the new version of cakephp will be rocking soon.

What are the new features in CakePHP 4.0.0

The Directory structure and the Bake console is rewritten to ease the development process and to increase development speed.

CakePHP was using Foundation framework for CSS and UI , but they are going to discontinue this associations and will go with the new one i.e. milligram.

Automatic Time zone handling by the ORM if any difference is found between Database timezone and server timezone.

All the deprecated features will be removed completely in new version.

CakePHP will not support PHP 5.6 and PHP 7.0, The minimum version that will be acceptable is PHP 7.1.0. Further It will be modified to PHP 7.2.0 as a minimum acceptable version of PHP.

An improved type-hinting will be added.

Error and warning reporting system is improved.

Validation messages will be embedded in Form helper and date-time input is introduced.

Authentication functionality has been split into standalone plugins Authentication and Authorization.

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How to start with Codeigniter

What is Codeigniter?

Codeigniter is a PHP based Web development framework.Code igniter follows MVC and HMVC pattern for application development. This is one of the easiest and the simplest MVC frame work available in PHP. It doesn’t demand any configurational setting before execution. We just need to download the Codeigniter source code and to execute it on webserver.

How to and from where we will find the CodeIgniter?

We can download the latest release source code from official website of CodeIgniter [https://codeigniter.com/download]. It is a 2.7 MB zip file for CodeIgniter 3.1.10.

We can also clone it or fork it from Git Hub [https://github.com/bcit-ci/CodeIgniter].

When we will extract we will find 3 folders

  1. application
  2. system
  3. user_guide

application – is what we will use for creating modules,display and our logic will remain there in Models,Views and Controllers.

system – folder is core files of CodeIgniter, that we don’t need to work on.

user_guide – is the tutorial, documentation and examples of how to use Code igniter and this is the best documentation available for any MVC framework.

How to configure it?

No any configuration required. Just put the extracted folder inside your localhost directory and run it, You will find a welcome home screen.

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What is Singleton Design Pattern?

Singleton pattern is a technique to provide a class global state. Once we have created the instance of the class we can use the existing instance multiple times. So it restricts the multiple instantiation of a class.It is a great example of re-usability in Object Oriented Programming System.

How it works?
We restrict the constructor while declaring it as private , of the class to access it from outside and a static method is created that returns the instance.

Example in PHP:

class SingletonClass {
  private static $the_instance = null;
  //the private constructor
  private function __construct()
 //public static function to return the instance
  public static function getInstance()
    if (self::$the_instance == null)
      self::$the_instance = new SingletonClass();
    return self::$the_instance;

Usage of Singleton Class:

Connecting A database and use exiting connection, to avoid multiple open connection issue:

	class DB {

	  private static $instance = null;
	  private $conn;
	  private $host = 'localhost';
	  private $user = 'root';
	  private $pass = 'password';
	  private $name = 'my_database_name';
	  private function __construct()
	    $this->conn = new PDO("mysql:host={$this->host};
	    dbname={$this->name}", $this->user,$this->pass,
	    array(PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_INIT_COMMAND => "SET NAMES 'utf8'"));
	  public static function getInstance()
	      self::$instance = new DB();
	    return self::$instance;
	  public function dbConnection()
	    return $this->conn;

Now creating an Instance using the static method:

	$the_instance = DB::getInstance();
	$conn = $the_instance->getConnection();
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Programming And Interview Books

Core Python Programming

Coding Interview Books

Top 1000 Java Interview Questions: Includes Spring, Hibernate, Microservices, GIT, Maven, JSP, AWS, Cloud Computing: (latest 2018 edition)

Java Interview Books

Data Structures and Algorithms Made Easy: Data Structures and Algorithmic Puzzles

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Embedded using C Interviews Questions and Answers

What is an Embedded system? Describe Embedded C.

In simple words, the Embedded system can be referred to as customizing hardware with customizing the software. Embedded systems are controller-based which is embedded with software to perform specific tasks.

Embedded C is an extended version of C language which is used to develop microcontroller-based systems.


What are little endian and big endian types of storage? How can you identify which type of allocation a system follows?

Big-endian and little-endian are two formats to store multibyte data types into the computer’s memory. Big-endian format and little-endian format. In Big-endian format, MSB(most significant byte) gets memory first and LSB (least significant byte) in last.

In the case of little-endian format the LSB byte gets memory first and MSB byte in last.

Suppose an integer having value 0x12345678.

In the case of big-endian 0x12 gets stored first in memory, then  0x34, then 0x56 and in the last 0x78.

In the case of little-endian 0x78 gets stored first in memory, then  0x56, then 0x34 and in the last 0x12.

0x12 0x34 0x56 0x78
0x2000 0x2001 0x2002 0x2003 0x2004
Memory address
Big Endian Format
0x78 0x56 0x34 0x12
0x2000 0x2001 0x2002 0x2003 0x2004
Memory address
Little Endian Format


Write a C program to identify little and big endian.

#include <stdio.h>

int main ()


 unsigned int x = 0x12345678;

 char *c = (char*) &x;

 if (*c == 0x78)


   printf (“Architecture is little endian. \n);




    printf (“Architecture is big endian. \n);


 return 0;



What is ISR(Interrupt Service Routine)?

ISR refers to the Interrupt service routine. Whenever an interrupt occurs, the controller completes the execution of the current instruction and starts the execution of an Interrupt Service Routine. This process is also known as an interrupt handler.  


What is a Qualifier in C?

Qualifiers are the keywords which are used to modify the values of variables. There are two types of the qualifier in C.


Const qualifier used with a variable when we want to make variable to unchangeable. If you will try to change, the compiler will give you an error.


Variable qualified with volatility prevents the compiler to optimize that variable. The values of the variable can be changed by code outside the scope of the current code at any time. The system always reads the current value of a volatile object from the memory location rather than keeping its value in a temporary register.


What is a ‘volatile’ variable, can a variable be both constant and volatile, can a pointer be volatile?

Consider the following example:

volatile int x;

When the compiler finds the variable qualified with the volatile qualifier, it clearly comes to know to the compiler that it will not be involved in any change related to the variable. The value of this variable can be changed anytime by any external source.

A single variable can be const as well as volatile. Example

int volatile *const y;

y is a constant pointer to a volatile integer.

Yes, volatile pointers are possible in c.

int *volatile value;


What is interrupt latency? How to reduce interrupt latency?

Whenever a microcontroller receives any interrupt, first it completes currently executing the instruction , then provides service to interrupt and again continues the executing instruction from the same position where the controller skipped.

So, it takes some time to microcontroller to provide service to interrupt. The amount of time(Number of cycle) taken by microcontroller to start servicing to interrupt known as interrupt latency.

Interrupt latency can be minimized by writing short ISR routine and by not delaying interrupts for more time.


Can we use any function inside the ISR?

Yes, we can but doing so will increase interrupt latency. That’s why it is not recommended as in many cases latency should be as small as possible and using a function inside the ISR will also decrease performance.


What are storage classes?

Storage classes used to classify variable as per their scope (visibility) and  lifetime. Default value and storing value place also different to each other. There are four types of storage classes.


Variable Scope Lifetime Default Value
Auto Local Within the function Garbage value
register Local Within the function Garbage value
Static Local Till the end of the program Zero
extern Global Till the end of the program Zero

Note: Only register variables get memory in a CPU register (if CPU register has vacant memory). Other three variables get memory in RAM memory locations.


What is use of static keyword?

Static keyword can be used with variable as well as functions. The life of static variable lasts till the end of the programs and scope is local(Visible within the function only). Still static variable holds  their value after they are out of their scope.


int increment()


 static int count = 0;


 return count;



int main()


 printf(“%d “, increment());

 printf(“%d “, increment());

 return 0;


Output: 1 2

Function with static within any source file can accessible to only that source file.By using static we make function local only to source file within it is defined.


What is use of register storage class?

In register storage class CPU registers are used to store values.

for example. If you want to store variable which will be frequently required then you can store it in the register like in case of loops. However it is not guaranteed that variable will get store in register.

It is like a request to CPU to allow the variable to store in CPU’s register.

If CPU has vacant register to store variable ,it permits otherwise ignore the request and variable gets allocated in ram memory.

Note: We cannot obtain the address of a register variable using pointers.


What is Synchronous and asynchronous data transmission?

Serial data communication has two types.

Synchronous data transmission

Synchronous transmission needs a clock signal between the source and target to let the target know of the new byte.synchronous transmission data is transmitted in the form of data bundles. So data rate of it very high.

Asynchronous data transmission

Asynchronous transmission has no need of clock signal between the source and target. It sends start and stop bit to start and stop the transmission. It send single-byte data at a time so data rate of it is not much good.

Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Transmission

  1. In synchronous mode, data is transmitted in the bundle but in asynchronous mode, data is transmitted byte by byte.
  2. Synchronous required a clock signal between the source and destination to acknowledge the destination about information while in asynchronous clock signal is not required.
  3. Data transfer rate of synchronous is faster compared to asynchronous .
  4. Synchronous mode has lower overhead compared to asynchronous transmission.


What is Baud Rate? How it differs from Bit Rate?

In data communication, data are transferred along with signal. The number of the signal transferred per second is known is Baud rate. Bite rate is a number of bits (data) transferred per second. As a single signal may contain more than 1 bit while transferring the data. The relation between the two is given below.

Bit rate = baud rate x the number of bit per baud


What is memory leak ? How we can avoid it?

The memory leak is a condition where the programmer allocates memory in the heap area by using dynamic memory allocation and forget two deallocate. So, it is recommended to use the free() function to deallocate memory which is allocated by dynamic memory allocation once the use of memory location is not further needed.


How to set, clear and toggle a single bit of variable?

The value represents the initial variable and position represents the position of bit in a variable.

Setting a Bit:

Value |= (1 << position)

Clearing a Bit:

Value &= ~ (1<<position)

Toggling a Bit:

Value ^= (1 << position)


What is Dynamic Memory Allocation(DMA)? What is the difference between malloc() and malloc()?

Dynamic memory allocation (DMA) is the process of allocating memory for variables at run time of the program. This kind of allocation allocates memory in the heap area of memory.

malloc function takes one argument at calling but calloc takes two arguments. Also, memory allocated by calloc is initialized with zero.

These functions always return pointer of type void which can be cast into a pointer of any form.

Syntax: For 5 element of int type variable. ptr is int type pointer.

ptr = (int *) malloc (5*sizeof(int))

ptr =  (int*) calloc (5, sizeof(int))


What are void pointers in C?

Void pointer also known as generic pointers. There is no data type associated with these, so these can be typed cast to any type.


What is a dangling pointer?

A pointer pointing to deleted or deallocated memory  location is known as dangling pointer. To try to access this type of pointer causes undefined behavior or segmentation fault.


What is a wild pointer?

An uninitialized pointer is known as a wild pointer. When we declare any pointer without giving any address, it shows an arbitrary memory location. As we assign it a memory location, it is not a wild pointer anymore.


int main()


           int a;

           int* ptr;              //Wild pointer

           ptr = &a;           //Not more wild pointer




Explain the meaning of these pointers?


  • int *ptr;
  • cons int * ptr;
  • int * const ptr;
  • const int *const ptr;


int *ptr

It is a pointer to a variable. We can change the value pointer pointing to and also the value of ptr.


const int * ptr

It is a pointer to a constant.  It can be also declared as int const *ptr. We can change the pointer to point other variable but we can not change the value of it by using the pointer.


int * const ptr

It is a constant pointer to a variable. We can change the value of the variable by using pointer but we can not change the pointer to point other variables.  


const int *const ptr

It is a constant pointer to a constant variable. Neither we can change the pointer to point other variable nor we can change the value using the pointer.


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