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8 Things a Visual Basic Developer Should Learn

If you are a computer science graduate who wants to become a software engineer or a software developer, you might come across the programming language Visual Basic. If you want to become a Visual Basic Developer there are some technical things you should learn to become a good programmer. 

While the technology has advanced far there are so many platforms, tools and languages coming out in the market. It doesn’t matter whether you’re a newbie programmer or an experienced, as a program developer you should have the knowledge on how to integrate the modern technologies and other technical stuff into your work to make a good software or product. 

In this blog, we will discuss 8 things you should learn as a Visual Basic Developer. 

Basics of Visual Basic

The first and foremost thing you should learn about Visual Basic is that you need to develop an understanding of the basics of this language. While there is already a word “Basic” in the name Visual Basic, you ought to believe that it is a language for beginners. And, what really Visual Basics is, it is an object-oriented programming language designed by Microsoft. Although it is designed for the novices, the power of VB cannot be underestimated. 

Simple but Powerful Syntax

Many criticise VB.Net for the simplicity in syntax. But it has the ability to create sophisticated and powerful applications with these syntax. A beginner who can understand the language of computers should be able to pick up Visual Basic easily. If you’re a newbie computer programmer, vb.net is a great place to start. The syntax is easy and straight forward that you will not find yourself writing hundreds of lines of code. VB offers many shortcuts that it makes coding so much easier. 

Application Creating Components

Visual Basic is a third-generation event-driven programming language. Derived from BASIC, Visual Basic enables rapid application development (RAD) of graphical user interface (GUI) applications. Using the components provided by the Visual Basic program, you can create an application. Third-party components were developed over time by a community of programmers. Programs written in Visual Basic require external function declarations such as the Windows API.  

Versions of VB

There are over 10 revisions on Visual Basic versions starting with Project ‘basic Thunder’ in 1990 and it remained as the primary internal function of VB as “ThunderRTMain”. The final version 6 was released in 1998 which now simply known as Visual Basic. Microsoft stopped supporting Visual Basic 6.0 IDE on April 8, 2008. The compatibility for Visual Basic 6.0 applications on Windows Server 2008 including R2, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2016, Windows 10 and Windows Server 2019 are still maintained by Microsoft VB team. Some software developers still preferred Visual Basic 6.0 over its successor Visual Basic .NET in 2014, Visual Basic 6.0 won the technical impact award in 2016 at The 19th Annual D.I.C.E. Awards.

VB Applications (VBA)

In several Microsoft applications including Microsoft Office, VB Applications (VBA) is used as a macro or scripting language. Many third-party products such as WordPerfect Office 2002, AutoCAD, Sage 300 ERP, ArcGIS, Solid Works, and Business Objects Desktop Intelligence. Many inconsistencies were reported in the way VBA implemented in different applications. But it uses the same runtime library and is largely the same language as Visual Basic 6.0. Although development on Visual Basic ended with 6.0, in 2010 Microsoft introduced VBA 7 to provide extended features and add 64-bit support. 

VB on Demand

There are many US states that demand Visual Basic developers such as Arizona, Georgia, Florida, Kentucky, Delaware, Louisiana, Indiana and more to name. This is meant to help you understand VB is a programming language which is in demand. Therefore I recommend doing your own research and as well as searching in-depth for what is popular in your current city.

VB and Visual Basic .net

Visual Basic .net can be called as the successor of Visual Basic or a modern version of it. The Microsoft team developed this modern, simple, and object-oriented computer programming language to combine the power of .NET Framework. The hallmark of Visual Basic is combined with productivity benefits and a common language runtime. 

Get Training

Depending on how much time you spend on learning this language which is rather simple, it should take you a few months to become a competent programmer. If you feel you can’t do it all your own, get Visual Basic Training and start working on the more advanced details. In Visual Basic these advanced details include things like client/server programming, building ActiveX controls, database programming, the development environment itself (add-ins), the API, etc. 

Meanwhile, you can keep a watchful eye on program groups and forums. You will learn a lot by reading other peoples’ answers. You will also learn about new topics you may not have encountered before. When you see questions you can answer, do so. When you see something you think you can figure out, you may do it. Other people often ask questions you would not think to ask yourself. Tracking down the answers will teach you a lot.

These are the 8 things you need to learn in order to become a Visual Basic Developer. Still you are confused about whether the VB programming language is the right choice for your career? No need once you master all these, you will be an expert in Visual Basic. This may take one or more years depending on how much time you invest.

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Freelancer PHP Level 1 Exam Questions Answers

Freelancer.com is an open platform for the skilled person to get projects and jobs according to their expertise. There are many types of projects there like Fixed Price Projects, Hourly and Contests. One can get their job done by an Expert on either side of the globe.

There are options to bid on the project and submit your proposals. The person who is looking for an expert will evaluate your profile , proposal and skill and then after conversation you get rewarded for this project. After successfully completing the stages you will get mile stones created by the Employer.

But at the same time the competition is High and It’s tough to get recognised by the employer. Freelancer provides assessment of the skills of various levels.

You can try these exams or quizzes and after completing it by scoring the appropriate marks set by the Freelancer you will get a badge of the Level of the Skill.

And this badge will make an impact on employers that you have knowledge of a particular skill.


Passing an exam increases your chances to get awarded the project by your employer. In This Section You will get stuff that is really helpful to you in clearing the Freelancer PHP Level 1 Exam. We have listed almost the questions asked in Exam and Answers for the same.

The file handle argument in fread() allows you to specify ___________.

Answer: the number of bytes you wish to read


$count = $count + 8; can be written as:

Answer: $count += 8;


Which of the following is a special PHP variable that is used under HTTP Authentication?



XML is used for:

Answer: All of these

Data manipulation and storage

Display formatted data in a browser using style sheets.

transfer data between organizations

transfer data between software applications


Which kind of reference action allows you to have two variables referring to the same content?

Answer: Assign by reference.


____________ describes the structure of a class of XML documents, specifying how elements are related and allowed.

Answer: Document Type Definition


Which parameter of setcookie() indicates that the cookie should only be transmitted over a secure HTTPS connection from the client?

Answer: secure


Which of the following can be included in a phar file?

Answer: All of these

a manifest describing the contents

a signature for verifying integrity

a stub

the file contents


Which of the following will encrypt a password?

Answer: crypt($password);


Which of the following will connect to a data base using PEAR?

Answer: DB::connect(data_source_name);


Which of the following will return 1 if the Memcache session handler is available and 0 if not?



Which bz library function returns bzip2 encoded data after compressing a given string?

Answer: bzcompress()


Which function opens a memcached server persistent connection?

Answer: Memcache::pconnect


On the additional header that PHP allows you to include on an email you can add:

Answer: All of these




MIME version

X-mailer and version number


__________ is the same as setcookie() but the cookie value will not be automatically urlencoded when sent to the browser.

Answer: setrawcookie()


Which function enables automatic compression of large values?

Answer: Memcache::setCompressThreshold


Which of the following will send queries to a database using PEAR?

Answer: none of these







Which PHP library allows you to connect to and communicate with different types of servers using many different types of protocol?

Answer: cURL


Which configuration directive sets the size of data chunks for transfers?

Answer: memcache.chunk_size


What does PEAR stand for?

Answer: PHP Extension and Application Repository


Which of the following functions are used to encrypt passwords?

Answer: md5() and crypt()


Which cURL function sets an option on the given cURL session handle?

Answer: curl_setopt


Which of the following are examples of resource types in cURL?

Answer: cURL handle and a cURL multi handle


Which API treats XML as flow-through string data?

Answer: CAX


What does XML mean?

Answer: eXtensible Markup Language


singleton design pattern

Answer: Sometimes it’s important to have only one instance for a class. For example, in a system there should be only one window manager (or only a file system or only a print spooler). Usually singletons are used for centralized management of internal or external resources and they provide a global point of access to themselves.


PHP magic constant

Answer: __LINE__


When a small window pops up in front of the browser asking your username and a password, what kind of Authentication is being used?

Answer: HTTP


In session management cookies are usually not used for:

Answer: logging the user in for the first time


Which function returns the version of the server?

Answer: Memcache::getVersion


Which character must be set in the $mode argument for fopen($file, $mode) to open a file for reading and writing?

Answer: r+;


Which of the following will open the file “time.txt” as readable?

Answer: fopen(“time.txt”,”r”);


_____________ attempts to establish an FTP connection to a remote server by emulating an FTP client.

Answer: FTP ftp_connect()


Which of the following is the correct syntax to retrieve an object from the memcache module?

Answer: $result = $memcache->get(‘key’);


Which of these will perform integer rather than floating point division?

Answer: intval(x/y)


$count = $count * 3; can be written as:

Answer: $count *= 3;


What is the correct way to add 1 to the $counter variable?

Answer: $counter++;


Which operator appends the argument on the right side to the argument on the left side?

Answer: .=


With the ________ bitwise operator, the bits set in $a are not set, and the not set bits are then set.

Answer: ~


Which bitwise operator will set the bits that are set in either $a or $b.

Answer: ” | “


Which of the following allows you to set a user-defined exception handler function?

Answer: set_exception_handler


In an object method, which of the following is always a reference to the caller object?

Answer: $this


Which kind of reference is used by creating a local variable in a function and a variable in the calling scope referencing the same content?

Answer: Assign by reference.


Which of the following returns the remainder of $a divided by $b?

Answer: $a % $b


What PHP operator is used to access methods and properties of objects?

Answer: ” -> “


Which interface type allows you to chain methods of an object together?

Answer: Fluent Interfaces


Interfaces define a “contract” specifying that an object is capable of implementing a method ____________.

Answer: Specifying exactly how is to be done.


What is the correct way to create a function in PHP?

Answer: function yourFunction()


Which of the following will print “Hi ” followed a name argument passed to the function?

Answer: function sayHi ($name){ print “Hi $name”; }


Include files must have the file extension:

Answer: none of these


What is the term for using a class to create an object?

Answer: Instantiation


PHP constants:

Answer: All of these apply


Can be accessed anywhere in the script regardless of the scope.

Can be used as default argument values.

Cannot change during the execution of the script.

Follow the same rules as labels in PHP.


Which statement can replace several else Statements?

Answer: switch


To retrieve information from a form that is submitted using the “get” method, use ___________.

Answer: $_GET[];


Which POSIX function takes the following two string arguments and an optional third-array argument: A POSIX-style regular expression pattern, and the target string to be matched?

Answer: ereg()


Which PHP operator will attempt to execute its contents as a shell command?

Answer: (` `)


What function takes any number of numerical arguments and returns the largest of the arguments?

Answer: max()


To unregister a session variable STRING use:

Answer: session_unregister(STRING);


Which of the following is correct to select a database in MS SQL?

Answer: mssql_select_db(STRING)


Select the variable used to set the php.ini file to send emails containing the address of the default PHP mail sender.

Answer: sendmail_from


Which configuration directive is used to transparently failover to other servers on errors?

Answer: memcache.allow_failover


Which PHP function is identical to the C fwrite() function?

Answer: fputs()


Which function writes a string to a file?

Answer: file_put_contents


To denote strings in PHP, you can use both double quotes ” ” and which other characters?

Answer: single quotes ‘ ‘


What kind of elements can be contained in constants?

Answer: All of these







Which PHP operator type allows you to execute its contents as a shell command?

Answer: Execution operator


PHP variables start with the following symbol:

Answer: $


Which POSIX function takes a pattern, a target string, and an optional limit on the number of portions to split the string into.

Answer: split


What function raises the first argument to the power of the second argument, with decimal places to be specified by the scale factor?

Answer: bcpow


Instead of a single new line character some clients require which characters?

Answer: “\r\n”


Which function parses input from a file according to a format?

Answer: fscanf


Which file should be edited to set configuration directives?

Answer: php.ini


Which of the following is correct in PHP?

Answer: Zero is interpreted as false


Which parameter of setcookie() defines the amount of time for which a cookie is valid?

Answer: expire


Which control structure allows you to quickly traverse through an array?

Answer: foreach loops


Which types of code can be affected by namespaces?

Answer: Classes, functions and constants.


Although any valid PHP code can be contained within a namespace, only four types of code are affected by namespaces: classes, interfaces, functions and constants.


Which cURL function returns the last error number?

Answer: curl_errno


Which of the following is an invalid constant name?

Answer: 2DAY


Which PHP operator allows you to assign values to variables and arrays?

Answer: “=”


What is the term for breaking the binding between a variable name and variable content?

Answer: Unsetting references.


Which is the operator for the integer remainder from the division of two values?

Answer: %


Which predefined Memcache function turns on data compression?



Which compressed file type can be decompressed without specifying the extension?

Answer: zip


Which configuration directive, in conjunction with memcache.allow_failover, defines how many servers to try when setting and getting data?

Answer: memcache.max_failover_attempts


The correct way to create a numeric variable “v” that might have any real number is:

Answer: $v;


Which of the following databases are supported by PHP?

Answer: All of these



Oracle and Informix

PostgreSQL and Frontbase

mSQL and Interbase


Which of the following is the line to enable in the php.ini file for Windows in order to be able to use DBX?

Answer: extension=php_dbx.dll


Which of the following is the correct way to connect to a mySQL Server?

Answer: mysql_connect(SERVER, USER, PASSWORD);


Which of the following will return variables from a form sent by the HTTP POST method in PHP?

Answer: $_POST


Which version of PHP introduced object oriented programming?

Answer: PHP III


Which of the following will correctly create a constant “const”?

Answer: const const;


What variable is used by session cookies as a user ID?



Functions that represent a behavior of a class are called _________.

Answer: Methods


Which zip function retrieves the compressed size of a directory entry?

Answer: zip_entry_compressedsize


What does cURL stand for?

Answer: Client URL


Which function clears the cache of file status info?

Answer: clearstatcache


Which method defines HTTP Authentication using Apache Server?

Answer: .htaccess files


What is the most widely accepted meaning of the acronym “PHP” today?

Answer: PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor


_______________ defines a cookie to be sent along with the rest of the HTTP headers.

Answer: setcookie()


A special method to perform any activity required to instantiate an object is called a(n) __________.

Answer: Constructor


Which POSIX character matches zero or more instances of the previous regular expression?

Answer: *


Which POSIX character matches any character?

Answer: .


If an exception is not caught, a PHP Fatal Error will be issued with what message?

Answer: “Uncaught Exception …”


Which statement retrieves the value of a function after it is called?

Answer: return


Which “magic” constant implemented inside an include, returns the directory of the included file.

Answer: _DIR_


Which function returns a string containing a byte-stream representation of any value that can be stored in PHP?

Answer: serialize()


How do you write “Hello World 2010” in PHP?

Answer: echo “Hello World 2010”;


Which command returns the filename component of a path?

Answer: string basename ( string $path [, string $suffix ] )


Which file mode will read and write to the end of an existing file or create a new file?

Answer: “a+”


Which server verifies the name password and mail spool location?

Answer: SMTP Server


What does MTA stand for?

Answer: Mail Transfer Agent


The agent used to collect and access the mail spool is called:

Answer: Mail Transfer Agent – not sure


__________ is an extension that provides a way to put entire PHP applications into a single file called PHP Archive for easy distribution and installation.

Answer: phar


Which function is used to connect to a database using Authentication by SQL Database Query?

Answer: @mysql_connect(“localhost”,”databaseuser”,”password”)


Which function takes a single argument and returns the largest integer that is less or equal to that argument?

Answer: floor()


Which function takes a single argument and returns the smallest integer that is greater than or equal to that argument?

Answer: ceil()


What is the expression for returning the square root of 2?

Answer: sqrt(2)


Which Perl Compatible Regex function takes a regex pattern and an array and returns an array of the elements of the input array that matched the pattern?

Answer: preg_grep


Protected members are available to:

Answer: The class itself and the classes that inherit from it


Which of these variables has an illegal name?

Answer: $your-Var


A(n) _____________ is an ordered map that assigns values to keys:

Answer: array


What PHP type represents a series of characters?

Answer: string


Which of the following is NOT a correct way to specify a string?

Answer: alfanum syntax


Strings in PHP can be specified in four different ways: single quoted, double quoted, heredoc syntax and (since PHP 5.3.0) nowdoc syntax


Which of the following allows you to express any real number?

Answer: double


Which of the following is the correct way to create a reference to a global variable?

Answer: $var =& $GLOBALS[“var”];


Which of the following provides a means to access the same content on PHP variables by different names?

Answer: References


Which PHP operator is used to concatenate strings?

Answer: “.”


What PHP token that allows access to static, constant, and overridden properties or methods of a class?

Answer: ::


Which PHP operator type returns the result of string arguments?)

Answer: String operators


Which of these restrictions applies to namespace implementation?

Answer: Nested namespaces are prohibited.


What term applies to an identifier with a namespace separator that begins with a namespace separator, such as \Foo\Bar?

Answer: Fully qualified name.


Which of the following objects lets you create code which specifies which methods a class must implement, without specifying how the objects are handled?

Answer: Interfaces


Which Interface allows you to use a design pattern that is characteristically changed with the instantiation of objects?

Answer: Instantation Design Interface


Which POSIX character matches the beginning of a string only?

Answer: ^


Which of the following are two broad classes of regular expressions that PHP works with?

Answer: POSIX and PHP-compatible regex


Which statement allows you to end a loop?

Answer: break


This “magic” constant refers to the name of the current namespace and it is defined in compile-time



What is the name for instances of a class that contain all the internal data and state information need for the application to run

Answer: Objects


___________ allows a class to be defined as being a member of more than one category of classes

Answer: Polymorphism


The ability to define a class of one kind as being a subtype of a different kind of class is called:

Answer: Inheritance


Which function changes server parameters and status at runtime?

Answer: Memcache::setServerParams


Which function forces a write of all buffered output to the resource pointed to by the file handle?

Answer: fflush


Single-line comments in PHP use the following:

Answer: //


The ability of a class to protect access to its internal member variables is called:

Answer: encapsulation


You can use what function in order to check if a constant is set?

Answer: defined();


Which of these will perform integer rather than floating point division?

Answer: intval(x/y);


______________ is a mechanism for storing data in the remote browser and thus tracking or identifying return users.

Answer: Cookies


Using the Zip Archive Class, which of the following will include a file to a ZIP archive from a given path?

Answer: zipArchive::addFile


Which of the following is an example of predefined cURL constant?

Answer: All of these







Which of the following refers to a set of functions that allows you have access to multiple supported databases without writing your own wrapper functions?

Answer: PHP DBX


Which of the following is the correct syntax to retrieve an object from the memcache module?

Answer: $result = $memcache->get(‘key’);


_____________ attempts to establish an FTP connection to a remote server by emulating an FTP client.

Answer: FTP ftp_connect()


Which of the following will open the file “time.txt” as readable?

Answer: fopen(“time.txt”,”r”);


Which character must be set in the $mode argument for fopen($file, $mode) to open a file for reading and writing?

Answer: r+;


Which of the following is the correct way to implement a “for” control structure?

Answer: for($i=0; $i<10; $i++){ // do something }


Which of the following is the only keyword that can be written before the namespace at the top of the file?

Answer: declare


What is the correct way to access the property of a PHP object?

Answer: $obj->property


Select the convention sign used to indicate private variables and functions:

Answer: _ for $_name


Arrays can be sorted with which of the following functions?

Answer: arsort(), ksort() and uksort();


Private members are accessible to:

Answer: The class itself and the classes that inherit from it


Which function returns the square root of its argument, with number of decimal places set by the optional scale factor?

Answer: bcsqrt()


What 2 types of parsers are used in PHP?



What does MIME stand for?

Answer: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions


Which configuration directive defines a comma separated list of server urls to use for session storage?

Answer: session.save_path


Which function gets permissions for the given file?

Answer: fileperms


Which function checks whether a file or directory exists?

Answer: file_exists


PHP constants:

Answer: All of these


Do not have a dollar sign ($) before them.

May be defined and accessed anywhere without regard to variable scoping rules

May not be redefined or undefined once they have been set.

May only evaluate to scalar values.


Which PHP operator type allows evaluation and manipulation of specific bits within an integer?

Answer: Bitwise operators


At compile time static values are bound with

Answer: a name


Which Perl Compatible Regex character will cause any special character to be treated as a simple matching character?

Answer: \


Session files should not be stored on a directory viewable from the Web server because:

Answer: Malicious users may access other users’ login details


Which API reads in an XML file and creates a “walkable” object tree in memory, so it can be used in large documents?

Answer: DOM


What APIs are used for handling XML documents?

Answer: Document Object Model (DOM) and Simple API for XML (SAX)


________________ tests for the end of file on a file pointer.

Answer: feof()


Instantiate an object Demo: require_once(‘class.Demo.php’);

Answer: $objDemo = new Demo();


Which of the following is correct for adding a comment in a PHP script?

Answer: /* comment */


Which function returns (and caches) file permissions level?

Answer: fileperms(file)


Which PHP function sets file modification time or creates a file if it does not exist?

Answer: touch(file, [time])


Which of these PHP file open modes are valid for the specified conditions?

Answer: All of these


The ____________ function can be used in combination with the PHP header() construct to assemble and send file downloads.

Answer: fpassthru


Which function returns (and caches) the time a file was last accessed?

Answer: fileatime(file)


How do you modify the php.ini file to have sessions work correctly on windows?

Answer: change session.save_path = /tmp to session.save_path=C:/temp


Which function gets statistics from all servers in a pool?

Answer: Memcache::getExtendedStats


Which of the following functions returns a Boolean value after attempting to send a message?

Answer: mail()


Which of the following is the correct way to connect to a MySQL database?

Answer: mysql_connect(“localhost”);


Which files should be used to install cURL in an include directory?

Answer: easy.h and curl.h files


Which function returns the largest number that may be returned by rand()?

Answer: getrandmax()


Which Perl Compatible Regex function inserts escape characters into strings that are intended for use as regex patterns.

Answer: preg_quote


Which of the following shifts the bits of $a $b steps to the left?

Answer: $a << $b


What PHP function returns the arctangent in radians of a numerical argument?

Answer: atan()


Which function is used to start tracking a user?

Answer: session_start();


What statement will delete session files?

Answer: session_destroy();


How are sessions tracked on PHP

Answer: With code rewriting using the PHP Session reference variable


Which statement will skip the rest of the current loop iteration and continue execution at the beginning of next iteration.

Answer: continue


Which function returns (and caches) the owner ID number?

Answer: fileowner()


Which of the following is the correct way to implement a do-while loop?

Answer: $j=0; do { print “$j”; } while ($j > 0);


Which of the following is correct to show a message for an exception?

Answer: throw new Exception (“Invalid data”);


What term refers to the ability to shorten Extra_Long_Names improving readability of source code?

Answer: Aliasing


Which operator performs the same function as x=x%y?

Answer: %=


The control error operator is:

Answer: @


Which of the following is the not equal operator?

Answer: !=


Which Perl Compatible Regex function takes a regex pattern as first argument, a string to match against as second argument, and an optional array variable for returned matches?

Answer: preg_grep


What are the levels of visibility possible for a variable or method?

Answer: Public, Private and Protected


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Why Laravel Is The Top PHP Framework In 2020-2021

Numerous PHP-frameworks are accessible to use as open-source and free. Be that as it may, at whatever point we talk about Laravel, then the issue is unique. Try not to stress. It is likewise open-source and free PHP structure; however, it came in presence as the top and a propelled contender to the CodeIgniter system.

It is furnished with numerous highlights; for example, worked in help for client authentication and authorization. CodeIgniter missed these highlights. That is the reason the web advancement process utilizing CodeIgniter was very hard.

The expansion of the above highlights expanded the ubiquity and distinction of the Laravel structure. Numerous Laravel development companies engineers as their significant component for creating web applications and believe it is the best and most prestigious PHP structure.

Engineers likewise use Bootstrap Laravel formats while they grow large and complex applications. Numerous different highlights make Laravel the best PHP system in 2020.

We take an itemized conversation on the highlights and rule of the Laravel PHP system in web advancement:

Application structure

About the application structure in Laravel, it accompanies a default application structure. Its application structure is straightforward to use, thus giving high convenience to begin little or huge applications. With this component, designers can modify the application according to the proprietor requests.

Multiple File Storage System

Laravel is in build with various storage systems like cloud, Amazon, and other Exchanging between these profoundly included, and in vogue distributed storage systems will be a not too bad and simple errand because the API utilized for every one of these systems is the equivalent.

A standout amongst other things like this will be the designer will be permitted to use all these three distributed storage systems just in a single application. It will allow engineers to rapidly and effectively serve these files from various areas with no issue.

MVC Architecture Support

Concentrate on straightforwardness is an indispensable factor between business rationale and introduction being developed. Laravel supports MVC. MVC is named as Model View Controller. This design has a full scope of inherent capacities. MVC empowers engineers to support the presentation and offers reasonable documentation advantage.

To get a full favorable position of the Laravel structure, it is recommended to interface with experts having long stretches of understanding and aptitude as they are the individuals offering the total capacity to your web improvement given by Laravel.

Article Oriented Libraries

Laravel accompanies the enormous assortment of Object-Oriented Libraries fused with numerous pre-introduced and worked in libraries like Authentication library. CodeIgniter, Symphony, and other well-known PHP frameworks don’t offer these sorts of Object-Oriented Libraries.

Laravel Authentication Library is outfitted with a wide scope of cutting edge highlights. A portion of different highlights incorporates checking dynamic clients, cross-site insurance and REquest Forgery encryption, Bcrypt hashing, and secret key reset.


Laravel offers restriction benefits that are useful to the engineers in a way to recover strings of a few dialects. Along these lines, the web application will bolster different dialects without any problem. It is beyond the realm of imagination with various frameworks, so it makes Laravel a worldwide marvel.


Pagination is a run of the mill task in web advancement; however, Laravel makes it simpler at the initial step. It causes designers to make clever connections for any site created on the HTML and current page. Moreover, the connections made by designers utilizing pagination in Laravel will perfect with Bootstrap CSS structure.

Sharp edge Template Engine

One of the intriguing realities about Laravel is that it gives an in-manufactured layout motor named Blade. The powerful and smooth Blade templating motor necessarily accompanied Laravel 5.1. Laravel accompanies a first anyway still strong templating engine which isn’t accessible in other PHP frameworks.

It helps engineers from using the understandable code in the views. Also, the cutting edge views then effortlessly take care of into simple PHP code and are before revamped they are stored.

In a couple of conditions, altering or erasing an announcement appears to be an extreme errand while dealing with unpredictable and enormous undertakings. Be that as it may, Blade in Laravel encourages designers to expel or change the announcement with no issue handily.

Steering System

Laravel encourages designers to use a directing framework that is exceptionally helpful and straightforward. They require building up an index for the URI and afterward create and execute appropriate connects to the named courses.

The primary advantage is that while making the code, it puts the URIs depended on connections to the particular links and paths and updates them if the course change.


There are just a couple of frameworks that realize that making authentication is straightforward and quick. Like this, everything has been designed and included as of now for the web engineers for the most part.

The arrangement files comprise every single extraordinary archive that is basic for dealing with the elements of authentication services.

Programming Task Management and arrangement

In each web advancement, the process task the executives and setup is a fundamental factor that ought to be considered by each engineer top to bottom. It is likewise a necessary errand to be done on schedule. It may be sending some other errands or an email, clearing the database, overseeing undertakings efficiently consistently assume a significant job.

Try not to stress the platitude possibly commonplace, yet usage isn’t as Laravel is here with an order scheduler.

While utilizing the order scheduler, just the code passage will be included your server. Corn calls this scheduler over and over.

After the execution of the order, Laravel assesses the booked errand and run all the pending assignments. As such, Laravel offers ease in planning and dealing with the undertakings.


It is challenging to state if any web application is secure and ensured. With the Laravel PHP structure can give the top security to web applications as the passwords will never get spared inside the system as the understandable content. This is the principle reason Laravel uses the hashed secret phrase for security.

Laravel likewise gives the best counteraction to your web applications from infusion assaults. It utilizes SQL articulations to decrease the opportunity for genuine dangers.

Laravel offers numerous security features that include ensuring courses, encryption, HTTP essential authentication, and so forth.

Programmed Package Discovery

Programmed Package Discovery in Laravel discovers which bundles are wanted by clients to introduce. There is no compelling reason to set up any examination.

It is anything but challenging to impair this element, and engineers can do it with no issue. This component is likewise the purpose behind the ubiquity of Laravel.

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What is React JS?

React is a JavaScript library for building user interfaces. It is based on ES6 Script Extension. ES6 is ECMA Script 2015. React provides seamless manipulation and rendering of DOM objects.

We also consider it as a Popular JavaScript framework based on Redux Architecture. React is developed and maintained by Facebook Inc. React was first created by Jordan Walke, a software engineer working for Facebook. Facebook is using React since 2011 and Instagram since 2012.

It can be used to render UI for any type of device like Mobile, Desktop and tablets. React use JSX syntax to create dynamic HTML DOM objects. In JSX HTML is part of the Javascript code. JSX stands for JavaScript XML.JSX is an XML/HTML like extension to JavaScript.

According to Official reactjs.org:

React is a declarative, efficient, and flexible JavaScript library for building user interfaces. It lets you compose complex UIs from small and isolated pieces of code called “components”.

Reactjs Example:

A Simple Example of JSX:

const MyElement = <h1>Hello World!</h1>;

Features of React JS:

There is a number of features that React is Having. Let have a look at them:

Declarative views make your code more predictable and easier to debug. It renders and manipulates just the particular and right component when some change in data occurs and not the whole HTML page.

Break the whole Applications in a simple component. Each component is responsible for some particular rendering. This makes easy to maintain and make it modular. Simple component are used to make a complex and enrich UI. Since Component is written using ES6, we can separate state from DOM.

Example of Component :

class HelloWorld extends React.Component {
  render() {
		return (
			Hello {this.props.name}
	<HelloWorld name="World" />,

#3.State Less and State Full Components:
React JS allow us to compose stateless and stateful component. Where we can decide to separate our DOM from the state. A simple stateless component can be used in the application to render the data from different states.

#4. Flexible
When it comes to flexibility, React gives freedom to the composer to create components, modules, and logic to make an application to work efficiently.

Plugins and components make it Extensible to any level. Users can create any number of Components and plugins as per convenient. It never restricts. We can use external plugins also.

#6.React Native
React has developed native libraries that are compatible with Android, iOS and UDP applications. So we can develop and deploy native applications for these Operating Systems.

#7.One-way data Flow:
In a React Js application, the components are not allowed to modify any property but can pass a call back function to do so. We can pass a set of values to the component to render the HTML with desired properties.

#8. Fast and Seamless Experience
All the above features make React Seamless and Fast. React provide a fast rendering of component because it renders only the right component where data has been changed.

Why We Should Choose React JS?

  • It is simple as an ES6 script.
  • Easy to learn and a huge community over the internet.
  • It has native libraries, so a single technology can work for mobile, and web applications.
  • It has one-way data binding.
  • It contains self- contained components.
  • Exceptional performance.
  • High flexibility, maintainability, and testability.

You have got a clear picture of React JS. What is React JS and what are the main features that let developers move towards it.

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Code Igniter 4 Release Date

CodeIgniter is an open-source software rapid development web framework, for use in building dynamic web sites with PHP.

Codeigniter is a lightweight MVC architecture based PHP framework.

This is popular for its performance and zero configuration. Codeigniter has beautiful documentation. Since CI is the most flexible PHP MVC framework, people love to work on this.

CodeIgniter is loosely based on the popular model–view–controller (MVC) development pattern. While controller classes are a necessary part of development under CodeIgniter, models and views are optional.

CodeIgniter can be also modified to use the Hierarchical Model View Controller (HMVC) which allows the developers to maintain modular grouping of Controller, Models and View arranged in a sub-directory format.

Till now the biggest release of CodeIgniter is Codeigniter 4.0 or CI 4.0. A final release for the rewritten CodeIgniter 4.0 is live.

The first public version of CodeIgniter was released by EllisLab on February 28, 2006.

Developers all over the world were waiting for its release and on 24 Feb 2020, It was released.

Waiting time is over now the alpha is released by Code Igniter officials finally, last month.

The first stable version of CI 4 is CodeIgniter 4.0.0.

Key Features of Code Igniter 4.x:

  • High Performance MVC framework
  • Minimal Configuration as the earlier versions
  • HMVC Structure
  • Based on PHP 7.2 and ahead
  • An MVC framework with a small footprint
  • Highly secured and inbuilt CSRF protection for HTTP requests

Server Requirements for Code Igniter 4.x

PHP version 7.2 or higher is required, with the following extensions installed:

  • intl
  • libcurl if you plan to use the HTTP\CURLRequest library

Additionally, make sure that the following extensions are enabled in your PHP:

  • json (enabled by default – don’t turn it off)
  • xml (enabled by default – don’t turn it off)
  • mbstring
  • mysqlnd
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PHP Send Emails

In this article, you will find the answer to the question “How to use PHP mail() function and how to send emails using PHP?

The mail() Function in PHP

Email is an important part of communication and frequently used by web applications to notify users about important events and actions.

When we register with some application we get an instant notification as Welcome Email.

Almost every website has a contact us page and there is a form with some fields.

Users use this form to communicate with customer care or for any inquiry or to get any Quotations.

We can use the PHP built-in mail() function for sending email messages to many recipients using PHP application.

We can send Plain text messages or HTML rich text messages with styled and multicolor design. In PHP mail() function is used as following:

mail(to, subject, message, headers, parameters);

The PHP mail() function has the following parameters:

Mandatory Parameters:
to: This email address of the recipient.
subject: Subject of the email to be sent.
message: This is the message body and main content of the email.

Optional Parameters:
headers: This is used to add headers such as “From”, “Cc”, “Bcc”.
parameters: This is used to add additional parameters.

Simple Mail Transmission Protocol (SMTP) Configuration:

PHP mailer uses the Simple Mail Transmission Protocol (SMTP) to send mail.
The SMTP settings would have already been configured.
The SMTP mail settings can be configured from “php.ini” file in the PHP installation folder.

Sending Plain Text Emails using mail() Function with Example:

We can send simple text messages using PHP mail() function. An example is given below:

Sending HTML Emails using mail() Function with Example:

We can send rich text styled HTML messages using PHP mail() function. An example is given below:

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Joomla Interview Questions

Joomla Interview Questions for beginners and professionals with a list of top frequently asked Joomla interview questions and answers. This special piece of content is designed for people who are looking for a job as a Joomla developer.

This will be helpful to clear Joomla Interview. Here is the list of basic and conceptual Joomla Interview Questions and Answers:

What is Joomla?
Joomla is an open-source Content Management System (CMS), it allows users to develop online applications, e-commerce, blog sites, and websites. Joomla is built on a model view controller (MVC) architecture.

What is the position in Joomla?
Joomla site template divides the page into a various number of positions like nav, header, footer, top, bottom, module, etc.  This is nothing but a position. You can create as many positions in a template as you want, there is no restriction for it.

Explain what Joomla Modules are?
Modules are small content items that can be displayed anywhere in websites by assigning positions in the template. We can add multiple modules on a page at different positions.

What are the components in Joomla?
Components are responsible for the main content part in a template that makes changes on every click of the menu and displays the main functionality of the site. These are the core elements of Joomla!’s functionality. They include Content, Banners, Contact, News Feeds, Polls and Web Links.

By default what is the prefix Joomla has?
Joomla has a prefix like jos_, but during installation, you can set it according to you by default it generates a random prefix.

In Joomla CMS what is the file where database settings are stored?
Database settings are stored in the root directory under configuration.php.

How many files are required to build a module in Joomla?
Two files are required to build a fundamental module in Joomla:

  1. Mod_module_name.php
  2. mod_module_name.xml


What are the advantages of using Joomla?
Main advantages of using Joomla can be listed as:

  1. Joomla is open-source and free to use.
  2. It provides a lot of free components that are available in extensions.joomla.org.
  3. It has inbuilt permission and user role.
  4. One-click update.
  5. Provide simple, elegant and user-friendly templates free to use.
  6. Secure and user-friendly Interface for CMS.
  7. It can be used for eCommerce.
  8. Joomla generates SEO friendly URLs.
  9. Joomla is an MVC framework as well as CMS.


What are the limitations of Joomla?

  • Provide limited options
  • Plugin compatibility may cause an issue.
  • Its websites are heavy
  • Limited server resources and efficiency


Is Joomla a Blogging tool only?
Joomla can be used as a blog, but it is more powerful and rich in features compared to full blog systems like WordPress. Joomla should be preferred when your requirements are more than just blogging

By default how many tables Joomla have?
A fresh installation of Joomla can have 78 tables.

How many Joomla tables are related to users?
Table related to users in Joomla are :

  1. Jos_users
  2. Jos_usergroups
  3. jos_user_usergroup_map


How can you make a menu link that is not clickable?
You can use a link type separator/placeholder to create a menu link that is not clickable 

(doesn’t connect to anything or not to assign any component to it).

What meta description in Joomla Menu Manager?
Meta Description is basically used for SEO Purpose. It is a short description of the content and optional paragraph which is displayed in the results of search engines.

Name the editor used by Joomla content editor?
Joomla content editor uses TinyMCE Editor.

What Is The Default Super Administrator Account For Joomla Called?

What is Mambot in Joomla?
A Mambot is a small, task-oriented function, mini-program or plugin. It is used to modify content before display, extend site search, add core functionality, etc. Mambots are renamed plugins in Joomla 1.5.

What is Joomla Plugins?
Plugins are a kind of Joomla extension in Joomla. A Plugin is very flexible and powerful for extending the framework functionality. It contains a bit of code that is used to execute the particular display output of a component or module when the page is built. The plugin functions which are associated with the event are executed in a sequence when a particular event occurs.

How To Link Inside Content And Another Content Item?
Get the URL for the particular page you want to link this to. Create a link using a specific editor or with HTML, if you have no WYSIWYG.

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Tree Data structures Interview Questions for Freshers

The tree is a nonlinear data structure and a very important part of computer programming. It is a very flexible, versatile and powerful data structure.

The tree can be used to represent data items possessing hierarchical relationships. Items in a tree are arranged as interconnected nodes and edges.

There is a special data item known as root and rest are known as subtrees. This segment is based on the Tree data structure Interview Questions asked in various programming interviews.

The tree data structure is an important part of data structure and played a very vital role in solving complex problems.

This segment is based on concepts and theory of Trees Data structure and very helpful for fresher candidates in an interview.

What are the main applications of Trees?

A tree is a hierarchical representation of data and a non-linear data structure. Hence it has application according to its properties :

  • To Represent hierarchical data
  • To Store data in a sorted fashion
  • To make the searching process easy

What is root?

The first item in the hierarchy is known as the root and it is placed at the top of the tree. A root is known as root is known and it is a terminal node having a degree greater than zero.

What is a node?

Each item in a tree is known as a Node. Nodes are connected to each other and hence they have a degree.

What is the degree of node?

The degree is known as the connectivity of a node. The number of subtrees connected to a node is known as the Degree of Node.

In the Given Tree :

  • Degree of A = 3
  • Degree of B = 0
  • Degree of D = 2
  • Degree of E = 0
  • Degree of F = 0

What is the Degree of Tree?

There are several nodes in a tree data structure.
Each Node has its degree, the number of the connected subtrees.
The degree of the node having the maximum degree is Known as the Degree of Tree.
For Example in the above tree, the Degree of Tree is 3, because the degree of Node A is 3 and It is maximum.

What are siblings?

Nodes having common parents are siblings.
We can say the nodes remain at the same level in a tree are siblings if they are connected to a common node.
The common node is known as Parent.
For Example, D is parent and E and F are siblings.

What is the edge?

The line which is connecting two nodes is known as Edge.

What is the path in a tree?

If we select a node as the source and another as a destination node, then the sequence of the node between these two nodes is known as path.

  • There may be many possible sequences so there may be many paths between two nodes.
  • The path is represented as node pairs. For example, in the given Tree structure the path between A and G is (A, D) (D, E) (E, G).

What is a forest?

The set of Disjointed trees is known as a forest.
When several subtrees are there and they are not joined by a root then this set is known as a forest.

What is a binary tree?

A tree is a special case of a tree when any node can not have more than 2 children.

Each node can have at most two children.

We can structure a binary tree in three parts

  1. Root
  2. Left subtree
  3. Right Subtree

How many types of binary trees are there?

The most popular types of binary trees are as follows :

  • Full Binary Tree
  • Complete Binary Tree
  • Perfect Binary Tree

Full Binary Tree

A Binary Tree will be known as the full binary tree if each node of the tree has either two children or zero children.

The node having zero children is known as a leaf node, so a Full Binary tree is a tree where all nodes have two children except the leaf nodes.

A binary tree having every level is completed except the leaf nodes,


Perfect Binary Tree

In a Perfect Binary tree, all the internal nodes have two children and all the leaf nodes are at the same depth.


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In How many ways we can use Model in CakePHP

CakePHP is an MVC based framework and facilitates unlimited flexibility. A model in cake PHP is used for the data source and all the logics that require to gather the data.

Later we use a Model functions to get these formatted data in Controllers and send them to view using the set function.

Here we are going to learn in how many ways we can use a Model or data source in CakePHP applications.

The naming convention followed in CakePHP help us to reduce our effort and to make the development process rapid.

Since Model is used as a logical unit and data source we can use it in any Controller where we need the data, irrespective the name of model and controllers.

A Controller with name “Users” can access the functions written in Model User without any manual initialization. But the question is how to use another Model and its functions in Users Controller?

When we are developing a complex application we usually need to access data from many tables or we can say from many Models in a single controller.

If there is no association then we need to initialize the other Models manually. Once we initialize these models we can use any functions in these models in the Controller. We can use any data source in any controller.

Even we can use the Model in our plugins Model, in the same way, we use in our standard models.

There are different ways to initialize a model in any Controller:

  • Initialize at the start of Controller and use it in any action of Controller.
  • Initialize in the particular action of Controller.
  • Initialize and Using in Another model.

Initialize at the start of Controller and use it in any action of Controller

There are many such situations when we need to use any model continuously in all the functions, then we need to initialize a model that can be used from anywhere.

Here we once initialize the model is available anywhere in a controller to use. We should not use this method when we are using the Model in only a few functions.

This may create overhead to the application when each time a data source is being loaded without reason.

Initialize in a particular action of Controller

When we have limited usage in a controller then it is not a good practice to initialize a model at the start.

We should initialize when we need only.

There may be some particular function that needs to access data from another model.

Initialize and Using in Another model

There are many such situations arrived when you need to use another model functions in your model, then you need to import that model in your model.

When we need additional data apart from association we need to fetch data from a model that is not the current model. CakePHP provides flexibility to use a number of existing model functions in your model.

This facilitates code reusability and improves the maintainability of application and at the same time reduce overhead and development time.

Hope this article will help you in using a model in Cake PHP in different ways.

Happy Learning 🙂

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PHP Advanced Interview Questions and Answers For Experienced

We brought here some advanced PHP interview questions that need special attention while preparing for an Interview.

We have collected these questions and answers from various sources and candidates have been appeared in multiple PHP Developer Interviews.

These questions are useful for Freshers searching jobs for PHP developers and also for the people looking for a change having 2+ years experience.

Find the latest PHP MySQL interview questions and answers for experienced in 2020.

These are not pure practical based questions but they have a huge impact on your selection for the right job.

How we can set default time-zone in PHP?
Using library function date_default_timezone_set() we can set default time-zone:

<?php date_default_timezone_set("America/New_York"); echo "Time in Default Zone is : " . date("h:i:sa"); ?>

What is difference between == and === ?
Both are the comparison operator. The first one (==) is ‘Equal to’ and the second one (===) is ‘identical to’. ‘Equal to’ is used to compare the values of variables. ‘Identical to’ is used to compare values as well as the type of variables.

For Example :

<?php $x = 1250; $y = '1250'; if($x==$y){ echo 'X and Y are Equal'; }else{ echo 'X and Y are Not equal'; } if($x===$y){ echo 'X and Y are Identical'; }else{ echo 'X and Y are Not Identical'; } ?>

What is difference between != and !== ?
Both are the comparison operator. The first one (!=) is ‘Not Equal’ and second one (!==) is ‘Not identical’. ‘Not equal’ is used to compare the values of variables. ‘Not Identical’ is used to compare values as well as the type of variables.

For Example :

<?php $x = 1250; $y = '1250'; if($x!=$y){ echo 'X and Y are Not equal'; }else{ echo 'X and Y are Equal'; } if($x!==$y){ echo 'X and Y are Not Identical'; }else{ echo 'X and Y are Identical'; } ?>

How do I get PHP Errors to display?
Use the following code snippet to on error reporting in a PHP script:

	ini_set('display_errors', 1);
	ini_set('display_startup_errors', 1);

But we can not display PHP parse error this way. We need to modify php.ini file and need to ‘on’ the display error:

display_errors = on

What is the difference between Notice Errors and Warning Errors in PHP?
Notice and Warning are the Non-fatal Errors and Not let the script halted.
Notice is an Advisory message regarding what you should prefer to do with this line of code.
For example, using an undefined variable is a Notice.




The warning is the message saying that you are going wrong and that may cause an error in the future so, you may correct that. For example, including a not existing script will throw a Warning.



What is the use of break and continue in the PHP loop?
Break: It terminates the loop and exit from the iteration.

Continue: It escapes the current iteration and starts a new iteration in the loop.

What are the common types of errors that occur in Php execution?

Php has Identified numbers of Error detection categories. Following are the common errors in PHP:

E_ERROR: A fatal error and halts the script from further execution.

E_WARNING: Run time warning that detects something is wrong that you need to correct to avoid future errors.

E_PARSE: Compilation error when the code is parsed. We need to on the error reporting in php.ini file to get this.

E_NOTICE: Run time notice to notify that you should go follow the suggested message.

E_CORE_ERROR: It is a fatal error that halts the script and occurs at the initial startup of PHP.

E_CORE_WARNING: Warnings that occurs at the initial startup of PHP.

E_COMPILE_ERROR: Fatal error on compilation occurs at the initial startup of PHP.

E_USER_ERROR : User-generated error message.

E_USER_WARNING: User-generated warning message.

E_USER_NOTICE: User-generated notice message.

E_STRICT: Run-time notices.

E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR: Catchable fatal error indicating a dangerous error

E_ALL: Catches all errors and warnings

Difference between mysql_connect and mysql_pconnect?
When mysql_pconnect() is used to create and maintain a persistent connection to the database that means a SQL link that does not close when the execution of your script ends whereas mysql_connect() creates a new connection each time when it called.

When a persistent connection is created and again a connection request is called the mysql_pconnect() return the earlier established connection rather than creating a new instance of connection.

What do you understand by &$name?
Using the reference of the variable rather than a copy of that.

If we pass the reference of a variable in a function as an argument and the value is changed then the value of the original variable outside the function is also changed.

This is passing by reference.

What is New in PHP 7?
PHP 7 has many new features. Here is the list of PHP 7 New features:

  • Scalar type declarations
  • Return type declarations
  • Null coalescing operator
  • Spaceship operator
  • Constant arrays using define()
  • Anonymous classes
  • Unicode codepoint escape syntax
  • Closure::call()
  • Group use declarations

When you are going for a PHP Developer job you should also focus on Jquery Interview Questions, PHP-MySQL Interview Questions, PHP Functions asked in Interviews.
I hope you enjoyed learning. You can ask any question based on the Above topic or you can submit questions here in the comment box.

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