Category Archives: SDLC

Automation Testing Interview Questions

Are you a software geek preparing for an interview? Well, we wish you a hearty, ‘All the best!’ 

Nervous? About What? Automation testing! Here are some questions you need to prepare to ace an interview!  

Test automation has an essential role to play in the entire software development lifecycle.  

A lot of times when people prepare for an automation testing interview, they focus only on the automation tool-specific questions.

However, people should also consider the fact that learning and knowing about the automation tools is not the same as knowing about the automation testing and hence it’s not the ultimate goal. 

 Thus, whenever you are preparing for a ‘test automation’ interview, it is essential for you to consider ‘Automation’ as a whole and focus on its framework and all the steps involved. 


What are automation and automation testing? 

 Automation is any form of action that can help reduce human effort. 

Automation testing is of course, automated. This is completely different from manual testing as in manual testing, a human is responsible for testing the functionality of the software in the way a user would. 

Automation testing is a software testing method used to test and compare the expected outcomes with the actual outcomes. It is achieved by using automation tools or by writing test scripts. 

Automation testing is used to automate testing tasks that are difficult to perform manually like repetitive tasks. It requires far less time than manual testing due to the fact that automation testing is done with the help of an automation tool while humans perform manual testing. Less time is needed in exploratory tests and more time is needed in maintaining test scripts while increasing overall test coverage just like mystery rooms.


What are the tests that can be automated? 

Following are the things/tests that can be automated: 

  • Build deployment 
  • Test data creation 
  • Regression test suite 
  • Smoke / Sanity test suite 

Automating behind the graphical user interface like testing of APIs. 


Is test automation useful or not? 

Automation testing proves to be useful in the following scenarios: 

Non-functional Testing: Automation-testing is used to test the non-functional aspects of an application. 

For Example, Performance testing and load testing are very difficult tasks for humans to track and analyze. 

Regression Testing: Regression testing is done in case of a bug fix or new module implementation, then is important to make sure that the already implemented and unchanged functionality is not affected in any manner. In this case, the people end up running the regression test multiple times. 

For Example: After each change request or bug fix and after every iteration in the case of the incremental development approach. 

Repeated execution of the same tests: Sometimes, it is important to run the same set of test cases for a different set of data. Also, after each build release or on multiple hardware and software or a combination of hardware and software. 

Automating the test cases in the above scenarios helps in maximising the speed of testing and minimising human errors. 

Complex calculation: Automation testing in this case helps in checking or testing scenarios that are prone to human errors. 


 Is it possible to achieve 100% automation? 

100% automation is difficult to achieve because then there will be a lot of edge test cases and some cases that are not executed very often. Automating these test cases which are not executed very often will not be able to add value to the automated suite. 


How can we identify the test cases which are suitable for automation? 

The most important step towards automation testing is the identification of the most appropriate test cases for automation. 


How to decide the automation tool that one should use for their Automation testing in the projects? 

To identify the best tool for Automation testing for your project you need to do the following: 

  1. You need to understand your project requirements thoroughly and identify the testing scenarios that you want to automate. 
  2. Lookup and search for the list of tools that support your project’s requirements. 
  3. Plan out your budget for the automation tool. Then, choose the tools within your budget. 
  4. Be sure that you already have skilled resources for using the automation tools. If you don’t have the necessary skilled resources for using the automation tool then identify the cost for training the existing resources or hiring new resources for the work. 
  5. Compare each automation tool with the key criteria: 
  6. Once you have compared the best automation tools for your purpose, select the tool which is within your budget and supports your project requirement, and gives you more advantage based on the key criteria. 


What are the key criteria for automation testing tools? 


The key criterion for automation testing tools is as follows: 

Does the automation tool have test reporting functionality? If not, can it be easily configured to the tool? Is that automation tool suitable for cross-browser support for web-based applications? How many different testing types can the tool support? 

  • How many languages does this automation tool support? 
  • Is it easy to develop and maintain the scripts for the tool? 
  • Can a non-technical person also execute the test cases with some simple training? 

Is the tool able to support different types of platforms like web, mobile, desktop, and much more based on your project requirements? 


What is the next step after deciding the automation tool to use? 

Once the tool is finalised, the next step is to design the framework. 

What is the framework? 

A framework is a part of the structure of the entire automation suite. It is also a guideline, which when followed properly, can result in a structure that is easily maintained and enhanced. 

The guideline of the framework includes: 

  • Handling of environment files and properties file 
  • Reporting of data 
  • Handling logs 
  • Coding standards 
  • Handling the test data 
  • Maintaining and handling the elements (object repository in QTP) 


Final Words: 

The questions above are the main questions that are important for automation tools or programming language. Automation testing interviews also include tool and programming language-specific questions depending upon the tool that the people have worked with. 

Most of the test automation interview questions are centered on the framework that the person develops, so it is recommended that everyone creates and understands their test framework thoroughly. 

Have you gone through all the Q&A? Now, get ready and crack any software interview! 

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Automation Testing Tools

The use of automation software testing tools is not a new idea being adopted by software companies all over the world. In fact, this remedy has been around for quite some time already due to the complexity and time-consuming nature of software development and testing.

As stated, the business of producing and developing software products is something that takes a lot of time, resources, and effort.

Not to mention a lot of personnel, the entire production and development phase of the product may well take several months to finish.

The general public does not exactly know that despite the complexity of the production and development process, the testing phase is what software producers and developers dread.

The testing phase of the entire process of software production may take an even longer time than the production phase itself.

This is because testers have to explore every possible area and angle of the software product in order to detect bugs, defects, or errors in the program and then work to correct them accordingly.

There are even times when the programmer is forced to recreate the program from scratch if the errors or bugs are too substantial that the software is rendered useless.

The use of software to test software products is not a novel idea. Nonetheless, it is welcomed by most software companies because of its expedited process and more economical implementation. With the use of automation software testing, the entire testing phase is greatly reduced from weeks or months to merely days or even hours.

Automation software testing tool functions as a virtual tester. It explores all possible program operations and functions with such speed that it will be close to impossible for a human tester to follow.

As the software operates, it takes note of those aspects of the program that are functioning well, as well as those that have problems in them.

After recording its findings, the records are analysed by the programmer and the necessary corrections are made.

The testing process is repeated and when there are still errors, the programmer corrects them. This process goes on again and again until the program is free of bugs and defects, making it ready for distribution to the public or to the one who ordered the program.

Automated testing software saves a lot of money and time by its obvious capabilities. For one, there will be no need to pay an independent human tester anymore.

Compensation for such a tester may become substantial as the program being tested becomes more complex.

Likewise, the entire duration of testing has a direct bearing with the amount of compensation to be paid. Using testing software eliminates this need for compensation because with the use of the software, even the programmer himself may test the program.

It may also be used by a third person in the presence of the programmer, saving a lot of valuable time and resources.

Automation software testing tools may well be the lifesaver of software producing companies in saving money, time Computer Technology Articles, and effort in their business production.

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Agile Software and Product Development

In agile software development, solutions provided to the clients evolve by organizing cross functional teams. This provides a conceptual framework that allows changes with time in entire course of software development cycle.

Agile software development also promotes a step by step approach of development that includes adaptive planning, evolutionary development and delivery.

This software development technique is very rapid and flexible that allows changes to the product at each step of development.

In Agile software development, the planning for product development is not for long term but the entire project is divided into several small iterations with minimal planning for each of the iteration.

Each iteration is a period of one to four weeks that consist of all major phases such as requirement analysis, designing, coding and testing, which involves entire development team in it.

This type of division of development into time frames increases the adaptability of the software development cycle to changes by minimising the risk factor too. The entire software can’t be released after first one or two iterations in the market but it allows minimisation of bugs involved in the developed product.

To release a software or inclusion of new features, multiple iterations may be required. In agile software development mainly a cross functional team is required, as it’s the responsibility of the team members to include the required functionality in each step.

In development of software by agile software development, developers follow complete software development life cycle which helps in reducing risks involved in the process of software product development. The time duration for the completion of the software is also drastically decreased by the use of agile approach.

In agile software development, face to face communication is done instead of written document communication with the developers, such communications help in complete understanding of every step.

Agile software development is different from traditional development methods in a way that it doesn’t follow co-operate hierarchy but is cross functional and self-organised.

Traditional software development team comprise of experienced developers and experts and are much flexible according to situations while on the other hand agile technology are more managed and controlled.

There are many benefits of using agile software development technology like the project can be made cost effective, reduction in project risk Psychology Articles, increase in project visibility.

High quality software is developed by the use of agile approach as it provides track and review options for the project during entire development life cycle.

Agile software development approach is very famous among big software developing companies as it allows them to build high quality software in very limited period.

Now a days agile software development has become more famous than traditional software development approach and is employed globally by numerous software development companies.

This technology is basically used in projects where lots of changes may be required during the course of development or many revisions are there.

Best Way to a Create Agile Software Development Infrastructure

These days everyone wants to be agile. In fact, agile is now considered essential for survival in the emerging service-driven economy, and this has stoked fear in big organizations that have invested years, if not decades, in building the monolithic data environments that are anathema to agility.

But even as the enterprise comes to accept the “adapt or perish” mindset that is the first step in digital transformation, it is important to note that agility is not only dependent upon an abstract, cloud-based infrastructure but changes to processes, business models, and the very fabric of the organizational culture.

In terms of software development services, agility actually dates back to mid-century when engineers at IBM and Motorola needed a more efficient and effective means of leveraging these amazing new machines called computers, says AltexSoft CEO Alex Medovoy.

Since then, a number of methodologies have emerged to extend agility from small teams to large-scale organizations, but they all require a significant commitment from management to overcome the inertia that inevitably builds up around long-standing practices. In the end, though, agile development deployed at scale can accelerate innovation by as much as 80 percent.

While agility does not spring from virtual infrastructure on its own, it is fair to say that it is very difficult to achieve within a static, silo-laden data center. This is why organizations should be working overtime to convert key resources, such as storage, to more agile, software-defined architectures, says Shachar Fienblit, CTO of Kaminario.

For starters, organizations should work toward establishing consistent performance across unpredictable workloads, in part by deploying a means to scale capacity and performance independently. Without this, the enterprise must maintain massively over-provisioned infrastructure in order to meet increasingly demanding user requirements.

As well, storage infrastructure must have the ability to incorporate new technologies, like Flash media, without disrupting existing processes.

Agile is also next to impossible without new networking and network management, says William T. Cannon, CEO of Monolith Software. In many cases, organizations are trying to build service-based architectures using systems that were created at the turn of the millennium, before many of today’s services, and even the virtual layer they reside in, were even conceived.

What’s needed is an overarching Service Assurance Manager of Managers (MoM) that provides end-to-end visibility across operational and business support systems by accessing device-level interfaces for both data-centric and virtualized assets. At the same time, it should provide runbook automation capabilities for real-time service assurance and provisioning.

Indeed, don’t underestimate the power of automation in support of agile infrastructure, says IBM’s Osai Osaigbovo. In fact, with infrastructure resources increasingly being provisioned as code, it will be nonsensical not to incorporate this into the agile Dev/Ops model along with everything else needed to support the product.

Not only does it speed up the development and deployment process, it provides for a more consistent service environment across the board, allowing multiple services to work together, even learn from each other, in a coordinated manner. Systems like Chef, Ansible and IBM’s Cloud Orchestrator are only the first step in the transformation, however.

They will need to be supplemented by release orchestration management, plus security and governance tools, to ensure that the automation stack is in tune with evolving processes and workflows.

Creating the agile enterprise is kind of like building the perfect house; there is always room for improvement. This is why most organisations will adopt agility as a never-ending strategy rather than an operational goal.

Agile infrastructure can help the enterprise lay the groundwork for agile development, but meaningful transition relies on more than just technology.

It will take time, effort and, most of all, vision before you start to see successful outcomes, and in the meantime, get ready for a fair amount of griping about how much better things were in the old days.

What IT leaders need to keep in mind, however, is that the old way of managing data and infrastructure is holding the enterprise back, and it is a burden that nimble, service-driven start-ups do not carry.

Priam Business Solutions provides full range of agile software development services Feature Articles, from custom software programming to mobile application design & development.

You can hire our highly qualified developers to extend your team remotely or order a full-cycle custom software development process.

Agile Product Development

Agile Product Development is the new terminology in the software products development technology and it has been using most commonly in worldwide. We are seeing with the evolution of this terminology; it has become the most important part of product development.

Nowadays no any software product development completed without going under the agile process. The concept of agile product development was in existence for a long time but was not an essential part of the development method.

Currently, Agile methodologies of product development are booming and playing a very important role in the software product development cycle.

There is still a lot of confusion on what “agile methodology” is and how it is used in designing and product development. Here I am trying to clear up some of that confusion and little illustration on Agile Product Development.

In the process of agile development, the traditional process of product development goes under the cycle of reprocess, based on its methodology beside continuous deliveries, testing team which manages the cross-testing of all functional activities of developed module and a team which make analysis and plan to deliver a product in a time deadline rather than making specifications.

In short, we can say, Agile is a methodology which is used for the production of software products. We can also illustrate Agile; as – For the proper execution of software creation and programming process, Agile methodologies have been evolved to permit different teams to manage and work together easily until the final delivery of each software products along with all possible changes occur in meantime.

As we observe and see the mechanical engineering product development process frequently faces the problem of inadequacy after the supervision of the engineer that has appointed to supervise workflow of development of the product.

While in mechanical product development when there is a requirement of adding any new feature then at that moment, we can make changes to a product. But in this process, it is hard to track the actual growth of progress after adding any new features at the time of delivery.

As more electronic hardware and software are incorporated into traditional mechanical products, manufacturers are seeking better ways to integrate design activities across engineering disciplines. As a result, many design and development practices are exchanged.

One such initiative, for Agile Product Development, involves the application of agile methodologies to mechanical design Business Management Articles, electrical design and broader product development.

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Software Development Methodology

Software development is an art. Because of this art software developers develop quality software. Software development comprises on series of step and each step is atomic step designed towards the perfecting of software. A bug free and time saving software product is the result of true and applicable methodology. The steps involved in the development engineering are long, conceptual and cumbersome. Software production is because of lot of hard work, ideas, experience and testing. Software developers are always struggling to deliver the best by introducing the new versions of software. It is always challenge for the software developers to provide the version of their product that can compete the market.

Software methodology is actual process that is gone through out the development of the software. It comprises a series of steps that are researching, planning, analysing, designing, coding etc. This means that software developers are customising according to needs of their clients. The basic standards that are required for implementation of software methodology are long term experience, industry knowledge and technology to develop software.

Have you ever counted that how fast technology is growing if you compare it with its earlier time? If we go two years back, we will observe exponential progress. Even our life style has changed and now we can complete our task at very rapid speed. Because of technology advancement our social life has improved. Things that were our dream in the past are happening very quickly today.

Whenever we discuss software methodology, it means we are talking about the agile methodology that is very recent introduction in the software industry. The word agile means ability to be quick with technology. It may also have the meaning that it can be more versatile with practice

If we ponder over the market, we will see hundreds of similar software is in the market and selecting accurate one is a tough job. Never compromise on the quality and keep in mind that software is always updated with the arrival of new technology norms , so do future agreement with the company to run your business smoothly.

SAP software modules are fulfilling the requirements of each size industry. Select software modules that are very necessary to run your business. With the deployment of this software, you also need professionals that can run these software modules. If you have already software professional, manage SAP training for them.

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12 Effective Tips to Improve Project Communication

Communication is one of the keystones of any project. A project manager has to interact with different departments. They have to talk to the upper management, collaborate with the whole team, and in some cases may even need to brief the clients about milestones of the project.

Hence communication is an important skill that needs to be mastered. This will help you in the long run. Without wasting any more time, let’s discuss the points where you can focus on ensuring that your project runs more smoothly.

1. Be Present

As a project manager, it’s your job to communicate with the whole team and understand the role of each member. You have to supervise them continuously.

It’s possible that at some point in time someone may contact you with a problem. You have to find a solution and revert to them immediately. If you don’t respond in time, there are chances that the person may continue making the same mistake and that will result in a problem for you.

No matter what, you have to bring your A-game to the table.

2. Use Project Management Apps

The 21st century is the era of technology and mobile apps

You have an app for literally everything that you can think of – game-related, monitoring your health, booking an appointment with a doctor, social media, or team collaboration.

Using these apps make your Project Management Communication Plan more prompt and these also helps in Project Communication Management Process.

Since you cannot be over everyone’s shoulder for tracking what they are doing, you should have an app through which you can collaborate and manage your team. 

Project management apps like Basecamp and Asana are some of the most popular apps that you can use to assign, unassign, and monitor the progress of the team. This will help you to keep the whole team on the same page and will streamline the procedure.

3. Adopt a Project Communication Plan

You should always emphasize on having a Project Communication Plan. Asking for your team’s opinion and listening to them will help your remote team feel empowered

Two major benefits of a Project Communication Plan are keeping your projects on track and completing within the specified time limit and sanctioned budget. If you can plan your whole communication very precisely, you can run the project more smoothly and thoroughly.

While drafting the structure of the plan, you have to clarify who can communicate with whom, when, and how. 

After this, the next plan of action that you need is to ask specific questions like “What kind of communication is required?” (meetings, reports, emails, task assignments, etc.) and “With whom I should communicate with?” (team members, project leads, clients, stakeholders, etc.). 

This will give you a much clearer picture and understanding of what to do next.

4. Plan Meetings Appropriately

Meetings are required for a team to work. You conduct a meeting to share the milestones achieved and to discuss what’s next on the plan of action.

But it is also true if you do not take time to plan your meetings, you might end up wasting more time for everyone including yours. An effective meeting plan should include who are the relevant members that need to be present at the meeting, what are the topics that will be discussed, and the approximate time duration of how long the meeting will be conducted.

It’s a recommended practice to notify the persons involved with some time in hand. So that they can prepare, summarize, and check the progress of the project. This way they can save everybody’s time by being prepared for the meeting.

5. Use the RACI Chart

RACI stands for Responsible, Accountable, Consultant, and Informed. It is a chart, matrix, or model that distributes the workload among the users and establishes the decision-making hierarchy. Drawing a RACI chart will enable the project managers to uplift the progress more smoothly and efficiently.

There are six steps involved in making the RACI chart:

Step 1: Identify the team members.

Step 2: Identify the milestones in the project.

Step 3: Draw a matrix with a row for each team member and a column for each task/milestone.

Step 4: Fill in each box with the corresponding R, A, C, and I to designate the role of each person for every task.

Step 5: Discuss, analyze, and get approval from the project team.

Step 6: Provide everyone a copy.

This will ensure that the whole team is in sync and understands their responsibilities.

6. Engage in Active Listening

As a project manager, you have to deal with a lot of people. They may come to you with queries, concerns, problems, solutions, concerns, and even ideas. Since you are the one dealing with them, you have to be 100 percent present and attentive and proactively listen to what they are saying.

How carefully and intelligently you respond to them is your job description. You cannot lash out at them when they come to you with a problem or you cannot reject their ideas just because you are not in a good mood.

Understandably, this might happen to you soon. You are human. The best thing to do at that time is you need to take a deep breath and think carefully before you respond to them.

7. Take Advantage of File Sharing Apps

In this information age, every meeting or communication that is taking place involves some kind of information. It can be verbal or physical. If it’s verbal communication, chances are you will document it.

When you have to share that document with someone else, it becomes a very long and tedious process of printing and handing out the document. The best alternative is to use a file-sharing app.

These apps can save a lot of time. You can share them on the go through your mobile app or tablet. Within a week, it can save hours of your time.

8. Use Online Communication Tools when Necessary

If you are communicating with your team physically, that is having a face-to-face meeting with the members, you are losing too much time. Imagine this scenario, you went to the meeting room with your team members and you find out that the hall is already booked. Don’t you think it’s a waste of everybody’s time and effort?

A solution to the problem is to have an online meeting where the participants can join from anywhere and you can be assured that the meeting will happen on time.

In today’s world where businesses are more aligned towards work from home, it’s a compulsory tool to have because you don’t have other choices. It’s the only way to connect and collaborate with the team. One effective communication technology that boosts your effectiveness and streamlines operations in your company is VoIP or Voice over Internet Protocol

9. Set Up an Online Review and Approval Process

People have experienced that reviewing and approving a certain task offline is a time-consuming task. So it’s recommended for every project manager to adopt the online review and approval process so that the progress of the project is not hampered.

Take Asana for an example. It’s an online collaboration tool where you can upload your files, other people can review them, suggest edits, provide approvals, assign a task, and so on. This makes sure that the process is streamlined and you can even see the current stage of the project. 

10. Keep your project management teams small

Small project teams will eventually result in better communication. Whether you need daily updates from the team or you have to submit a summary to your seniors, it’s always better to interact with fewer people. So that you can save time.

You can consider creating a supplemental team of individuals who are engaged in some responsibilities in the team. So, whenever they complete their assigned task, they can go back to do their respective duties. This way, no one will feel left out of the team.

When you submit the minutes of the meeting, it’s best practice to provide a copy to the supplementary team. If anyone has any concerns or suggestions, they can contact you directly.

11. Focus on your non-verbal skills

Many people believe that communication is not just a verbal language. According to them, 55 percent of the communication takes place as body language, 37 percent is voice tone, speed, and pitch, and only 7 percent is through words.

Although these numbers are subjective, you can always benefit from improving your non-verbal skills for communication. The question is, how?

If anyone is misunderstanding your email, you can have a phone conversation with them. Some people may prefer face-to-face conversations over telephone conversation as they can communicate using their body language. You can select your model of communication-based on the number of people you are interacting with.

When you try to communicate your message to other people, if they are not getting it completely or they are misunderstanding it, you can think of having these non-verbal skills as a tool for better communication.

12. Celebrate Achievements as a Team

Communication is only necessary when you are working on a project. But whenever the project is over, you should try and keep up the same level of communication as well. It’s your job to let them know what they have done well and allow your team to celebrate their achievement. 

It is also an important practice that communication, workflow, and creativity should improve with time. For example, you can take suggestions and discuss what needs to change from the next time onwards. But it’s also important for the morale of the team that you should always keep the energy positive and appreciative.


Always remember that there is always a chance of improvement even if your team is doing well. You can implement any of the above-mentioned 12 tips to step up your project communication in your team and observe the results yourself!

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SDLC Interview Questions

The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a methodology for developing high-quality software solutions.
SDLC is a Process to produce high quality software with lowest cost expenditure in minimum time.

SDLC Provides a structured and well defined phases that help to develop a high quality software in well tested and in ready to use condition.

The SDLC methodology focuses on the following phases of software development:

  • Requirement analysis
  • Planning
  • Software design such as architectural design
  • Software development
  • Testing
  • Deployment

Popular SDLC models include the waterfall model, spiral model, and Agile model.

Main purpose of using SDLC is lowering the cost of software development and at the same time providing the quality software product while minimising the development time.

The SDLC is a planned structure and moves step by step. The first step is evaluating.

Next step is requirement analysis. In this phase requirements of new system defines. After Requirements it goes through the different phases of development and testing.

The final phase of SDLC is deployment.By anticipating costly mistakes like failing to ask the end-user or client for feedback, SLDC can eliminate redundant rework and after-the-fact fixes. When you are going to search a JOB related to software development you must be familiar with the SDLC and SDLC Interview Questions and Answers as well.

Here we have listed  SDLC Interview Questions that are asked frequently:

What do you understand by SDLC?
SDLC is short for the Software Development Life Cycle. It is basically a software development process, which provides a clear architecture or model for the management and creation of the software. It helps in strategizing our actions based on our desired plan.

What do you understand by Testing Phase?
When a model goes through various rectifications for the search of errors existing in the software. There are many techniques now for this particular phase and can be customized as per one’s needs.

What are the different types of SDLC methodologies?
The different models of SDLC are –

  • Waterfall model
  • Agile model
  • Iterative or incremental model
  • Spiral model
  • Evolutionary prototype model

What are the phases in waterfall model?
Phase of waterfall model are:

  • Requirements gathering
  • Design
  • Development
  • Testing
  • Implementation & Maintenance

Where should we include the bug fixes in SDLC?
Bug fixes stage should also includes software maintenance.

What is CMM Maturity Level in SDLC?
The CMM (Capability Maturity Model) is a standard or benchmark which is used in the process of the development model in an organization to study or know the maturity of the processes being followed in an organization. The CMMI level is used to determine the quality or maturity of a software development process in an organization i.e. either software or hardware. It will be used to assess the organization on a scale of five different levels and the processes being followed in the organization. The five different levels are Initial, Repeatable, Defined, Capable (Managed) and Efficient (Optimizing).

What are LLDs or HLDs in SDLC?
The LLD (Low-Level Design) and HLD (High-level Design) are used to analyze and understand the project in a high level and low-level overview to different types of team members to the customers depending on the technical or business knowledge of the person. The Low-level Design is a detailed design implementation which will be helpful in the development process for the Developers whereas the High-Level Design will be given by Architects to proceed with the development process initially. This will be easier to know or look at a glance to understand about the project easily.

What are the processes included in Testing Phase?
Different testing methodologies are practiced detecting the software bugs, which happen to take birth during the previous phases. Today, there are many types o testing tools, and methodologies are available. Few firs are also building their testing tools, which are custom made as per the need or their organizations.

Here we have presented SDLC Interview Questions with answers. Hope this segment will help you to clear the Interview. If you have any  SDLC Interview Question you can ask answer from us. All the best!

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Agile vs Waterfall Project Management

We have two popular approaches to complete any project One is Waterfall Models and Another is Agile.

SDLC means Software Development Life Cycle and has many patterns like the waterfall model and the spiral model.

The waterfall is the most popular model in Traditional techniques.

But nowadays Agile techniques are the main reason for quick and quality deliveries.

Scrum is an Agile method. Two are quite different in behavior. Each has its own benefits and drawbacks.

We are going to study the contrast between agile and waterfall methodologies.

Let’s understand in detail:

What is Agile?

It’s an incremental approach to deliver and develop software in a quick manner.

The whole project is divided into small stories.

It is a time-boxed method and frequent deliveries and revisions are very usual.

It is based on communication between the client and the development team.

An agile method is focused on delivery rather than the hierarchy in a team.

Each member of an Agile team has a very important role.

In this process, every story is a bunch of design, development, testing, and deployment.

It breaks the project development into Sprints that are deliverable in two weeks.

The analysis is done after the completion of sprints.

There is no need to project managers, team members can manage the project at their level.

What is the waterfall model?

This a sequential and rigid model.

The whole development process is going through each phase and after the end of the last phase, we get the deliverables.

We can say that part of the project is completely developed.

We need to complete each phase to deliver the product.

We can add changes while development and cant test before completion of the project.

What is good in Agile?

  • It is process-oriented.
  • Continuous communication and self-motivated agile team.
  • Quality is maintained while quick development.
  • It is an incremental process.
  • Very flexible and can easily implement the changes while developing modules.
  • Good for large projects.
  • One of the biggest advantages of the agile model is its great adaptability. Adaptability means ‘responding to change’. Agile is very flexible in dealing with the changes in the customer priorities and needs.
  • Allows to constantly re-prioritize and refine the overall product backlog without affecting the current iteration in which the team is focused on delivering the (Minimum Viable Product) MVP. The changes can be planned for the next iteration, therefore offering an opportunity to bring in the changes within a few weeks only.
  • Agile methodology offers a great degree of stakeholder engagement. The project and the client team meet before, during and after each sprint. As the customer is constantly involved throughout the project or a final result, there are more opportunities for the team to clearly understand the customer’s vision.
  • The working software is delivered early and frequently. This increases the stakeholder’s trust in the team and encourages the team to stay highly committed to the project.
  • This model gives transparency. Both the team and the stakeholders know well about what is happening. The client can see the progress of the work.
  • Fixed schedule sprints of one to four weeks allow for early and predictable delivery. New features are released frequently and quickly in a time-boxed manner.
  • Agile is customer-centric. It does not just deliver the functionality but also focuses on delivering the feature that is of some value to the user. Each user story has business-focused acceptance criteria.
  • Valuable customer feedback is gained early in the project and the changes to the product can be made as required.
  • The focus is on business value. It first delivers what is most important to the client.
  • Improves the quality of deliverables. Unlike waterfall, testing is continuously and frequently done in an agile project and that, in turn, helps in detecting and fixing the issues early.
  • Agile supports TDD (Test Driven Development) approach which provides enough time to create unit tests for the features that are going to be released through MVP.
  • Also, by producing frequent builds, any misalignment with the customer requirements also be detected and fixed early.
  • As we get immediate user feedback after each MVP release, the risk of project failure is low, when you are working in an Agile way.
  • Agile promotes teamwork. There is a great interaction, collaboration, harmony, and enthusiasm among the Agile team members.
  • The schedule and cost estimates of each sprint are communicated to the client prior to the start of the sprint. This improves decision making as the user can understand the cost of each feature and prioritize accordingly.
  • In an agile project, there is room for continuous improvement. Lessons learned from the past sprints can be applied in the next (upcoming) sprints.

What is Bad in Agile?

  • It is only useful for large scale projects.
  • The standups are headed by an expert who can decide the priority and can take decisions on a daily basis.
  • Since its a modular development so a little distraction or misunderstanding can lead the project to off-track easily.
  • It is often seen that Agile teams have a tendency to neglect documentation. This is because the Agile manifesto more focuses on working software than the comprehensive documentation. However, the teams should maintain the right balance between the documentation and code.
  • As it requires a high degree of customer involvement, it can sometimes be problematic for customers who do not have much time and interest to participate in the project.
  • It does not work well if the team is lacking commitment and dedication. Waterfall requires involvement, where Agile requires commitment.
  • · If the initial architecture and design are weak, then frequent refactoring is required.
  • When we compared to the waterfall, Agile is difficult to practice. The team members must be well versed in Agile concepts. It requires a lot of discipline in doing the work and commitment to practice Agile.
  • Due to re-prioritization, it is less predictable than what will be delivered at the end of the sprint.
  • Due to time-boxed delivery and frequent re-prioritization, there are chances for a few features to not get delivered in the allocated timeline. This leads to additional sprints and additional costs. This can also make a problem to the nebulous timelines.
  • Lack of structure when compared to the waterfall, it demands self-discipline, highly proficient and cross-skilled teams. Without this, the project can really be a difficult and challenging one.
  • Availability is less of a blueprint of the final deliverable.
  • Sometimes the external stakeholder cannot resist following the Agile approach. In such cases, the education and the training about Agile are required to a wide audience.

What is good in the waterfall model?

  • Well documented and easily understandable.
  • Easy to map the dependencies.
  • Faster delivery and suitable for small scale projects.
  • Forward & backward planning and implementation is easy.
  • The waterfall model is simple to use and easy to understand. It does not require any special training for project managers or employees. It has an easy learning curve.
  • Being rigid in the nature, it is easy to manage the waterfall cycle. Each phase has a review process and fixed deliverables.
  • Less complexity as the phases does not overlap. Phases are followed one after another. It uses a clear structure when compared to other software development methodologies. The project goes through fixed sequential steps, starting from the requirement gathering and finally lands at maintenance.
  • Due to phased development, discipline is enforced, and timescales can be kept easily.
  • Works well for small projects where we have fixed and crystal-clear requirements.
  • Processes and results are well-documented.
  • Arranging tasks is easy.
  • It is easy to measure the progress as the start and endpoints of each phase are predetermined.
  • There are almost no changes in the requirements throughout the project, hence the tasks remain stable for the developers. Also, it is very easy for any new developer to quickly learn and start the work.
  • There are no financial surprises. Once the requirements are fixed or gather, then the final cost can be calculated before starting the development.
  • Caters for a sequential funding model.
  • Its detailed design makes the final expected outcome very clear to everyone.
  • The functional requirement specification documented in the requirement gathering phase gives enough details to the testers to design the test scenarios and the test cases. Therefore, the testing process becomes easy in the waterfall model.

What is bad in the Waterfall Model?

  • Not good for large projects.
  • Very difficult to adapt changes while development.
  • Only we can move to the next step after completing the previous one. So a very rigid process.
  • As all the requirements must be clearly and known before starting the development, it’s delays the project.
  • Requires extensive research as per the user needs.
  • At the initial phase of the project, it is challenging for the customer is clearly define and conceptualize their requirements in the form of functional specifications. Hence, there is a high possibility for them, to change their minds after seeing the end product. This change can also occur due to a market influence or business plan. Low flexibility in this model makes it very difficult to accommodate any such changes, especially when the product needs to be re-engineered to a large extent.
  • No working model is produced until the later stage during the waterfall lifecycle.
  • Slow delivery times. The customer is not able to see the product until it is fully completed.
  • The customer has no opportunity to get familiar with the system in advance. The waterfall model is more of an internal process and keeps the end-user excluded.
  • The client is not informed well about the health of the project.
  • Deadlines can be missed if strict management and regular monitoring are not kept.
  • There is no room for changes even it is visible during the development as the product is not going to cater to the market requirement.
  • Delays testing until after completion. Also, large revisions is very very costly at this point.
  • High risk and uncertainty are involved in the waterfall model as there is too much room for issues to remain unnoticed until the project comes near to completion.
  • Not a suitable model for long, complex and ongoing projects.
  • It is difficult to measure the progress within each phase.

So we the above study demonstrates Agile vs, Waterfall.

Agile and Waterfall are quite different in approaches and both are the methodology of different times.

Agile is modern and in a trend whereas waterfall methodologies are the most popular techniques to develop a project.

They have their own usability and advantages.

This representation of agile vs waterfall project management will make you understand their importance at their places.

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