Category Archives: Technology

Ed Tech(Educational Technologies) trends in 2021 and future

We are often told that change is the only constant. And you get to experience it multiple times in your life. Everything has changed since the beginning. Just take a look at current industries, be it automobile or even IT. 

Every sector has evolved since it was first started. I mean, just look at the means of communication, we used to write letters and now, all of us own mobile phones and can connect with anyone from all over the world. 

Many people claim that currently, we are in the middle of the fourth industrial revolution. Ye, we see technology change at an enormous rate, and it affects all of our lives drastically.

The introduction of the world wide web and the change it has brought have transformed the world. Every aspect of our lives has evolved unrecognizably, and it is for the best. From our economies to the supply of goods, everything has evolved. 

We now pay with UPI and book taxis on our phones. The electric car has become the future, and it is safe to say that we have come a long easy from bullock carts. Change can be seen in every sector. But the one sector that not only has evolved but is responsible for affecting every other sector is the education sector. 

If you pay attention to it, you will see that the factor responsible for all the transformations we see in the current world was because of extensive research and study. So, the pivotal changes that have directly influenced the other sectors are the education sector. 

Our classrooms and modes of teaching continue to upgrade and evolve with every passing year. They keep up with the technological advancements and use the new trends in technology to make learning more fun and engaging. Everything has seen progress from the subject matter to how things operate in the actual classroom. 

The educational sector has reported positive and exponential changes in every part of the world. From primary education to the university level, every tier has been incorporating new methods and techniques in teaching. 

Even the studying material is being updated regularly to match up with the current trends. Colleges now offer professional degrees in more fields. That makes it easier for the students to pursue their goals and get professionally trained by the best in class methods and faculty. 

With the fierce competition in the industry, it is imperative to change the way we prepare the candidates. The study material and the teaching methods should be tailor according to the needs of the industry. The education sector is evolving with each passing year, and in this article, we have listed the current changes that we saw take place in 2021. 

1. Upskilling technology across domains

People often pity the technology and human labor against each other. We see the trend where choosing one can result in neglecting the other. We use the technology to replace humans. But the original purpose of technology is to support humans, help them work optimally, and give the best results. 

Using the two in sync can result in optimum results. Once, the fear of technology is eliminated. The focus can shift on using the two together and enhance the level of the educational sector.

Upskilling technology has emerged as one of the top technological trends in 2021. Industries are heading towards workflow automation, and the human interface is important for a smooth workflow. 

Therefore the businesses are adopting cloud convergence, to help the candidates build cloud-based technological skills. These skills help the candidates become tech-savvy and increase the chances of their employment. 

Cloud-related technology training programs are increasingly adopted by the latest institutions. These programs exist to help the candidates match up with the expectation of employers. These programs are becoming increasingly popular in both online educational courses and campus-based institutions. 

Many online institutions are launching their services to help the candidates learn through their effective courses. The candidates can learn not only machine learning but also the effective deployment of using cloud infrastructure. 

These courses exist to help the learners access resources and a competent faculty. And master the skills that are high in demand and can help them land their desired job. 

2. Polishing of soft skills via curriculum

Along with the subject-based learning, and skills oriented learning methods. The institutions began using methods to polish and build the aptitude around cognitive skills like problem-solving, logical reasoning, and management. 

Their application and curriculum are emphasizing on these abilities as these abilities are an integral part to stand out among the competition. Their syllabus is built in a way that focuses on facts and theoretical knowledge but also incorporates real-life scenarios that can prove helpful in professional life. 

Now students are being encouraged to focus on other skills as well. Like, leadership skills, team-building skills, communication skills. Some real-life scenarios are applied in the classroom to prepare the students to deal with real-time problems. These methods are imbued in students via offline and online classes. 

This is a much-needed change in the education sector. This not only helps the students gain theoretical knowledge and develop their skills. But also enable them to navigate around the professional world. This gives them a needed confidence boost and turns them into capable and desirable candidates who are preferred by the companies. 

3. Emphasis on Innovation 

Attention to detail and innovation is vital in today’s world. Innovation has become essential in every sector. From linguists to artificial intelligence, the sheer amount of choices available today enables the candidates to pursue their dream. 

Now they can get professionally trained in their preferred sector and gain the skills and knowledge to make a career in their field. The vast amount of choices available is one of the largest trends we see in 2021. 

Memorizing was a thing of the past. Now the students learn by doing. The assessment module and course structure are designed in a way to help the student slean practically. They are made to understand the merits of a study. 

The candidates are now encouraged to choose what they are interested in, mainstream subjects and studies are not forced upon the candidates. The obsession with engineering, medicine, or even law is diminishing, and new opportunities are suggested to help the candidates choose a path that excites them. 

Newer fields and specializations have made a way for aspiring candidates, and the scope in these fields is enormous. 

4. Personalization of learning space

This trend is the most welcoming, and it’s about time that we understand the phrase “every kid is unique”, and so are their learning patterns. Formerly, the personalized learning methods were only seen in specialized schools and institutions. But now more and more learning institutions are opting for this trend and helping the specially-abled students learn alongside normal students.

To overcome the bias against specially-abled students, this is an important step. This trend will allow these students to learn in a similar environment as other students and open up the world of possibilities for them. 

These students can now enroll in prestigious institutions for higher studies and reach out and achieve either dream. Who knows, maybe we will see more geniuses like Stephen Hawking. This inclusion can be the largest trend of 2021.

5. Open Learning Platforms

One of the latest trends of 2021, is the rise in open learning platforms like Open Colleges. These open spaces help make the learning methods more convenient for students. The students can access all the course materials in one place, submit their assignments online and even check their grades. 

This space is easy to use and makes it convenient for students to learn and access information. And in times like these, where we are in the middle of a pandemic. This trend is a welcoming one and much-needed.

6. Rise in Automated Schools

With the rise in technology, schools rely on online assessment systems, to make it convenient for students and even parents to access the assignments online. In addition to the online assessment system. 

Automated attendance is also a rising trend among schools. Schools use facial recognition to ensure attendance and even use automation for other administrative tasks. When the students interact with online technologies, their digital footprint can be traced and used to make learning modules. The teachers and instructors can focus on the learning.  

7. Adaptive Learning

Personalized learning programs can help the student learn at their own pace, and the teacher can tailor the information as per the students’ requirements. With personalized and adaptive learning, teachers can create learning experiences that are engaging and personalized. This is a meaningful approach to education, and all the students get the necessary attention and can perform better in academics. 


The educational trends in 2021, lean towards technological transformation and the introduction of digital channels in classrooms and teaching methods. The education sector has a lot of potential. This sector offers a lot to a diverse audience. The changes in this sector directly reflect on the other sectors. 

Creating capable candidates who can bring change to the world is the responsibility of the education sector. The more opportunities provided in the education sector will broaden the field in the rest of the world. Trends like personalized learning, and enabling students to learn openly are some of the long-overdue changes. These will result in benefits in upcoming years. 

The availability of upskilling courses for all professions will help the candidates learn and polish their skills. And become a capable candidate that will be preferred by the companies. Many portals offer professional courses for aspiring candidates. 

They can enroll and learn at their convenience. There is no end to learning. We keep learning and evolving. Even though we are not actually in education, we can still learn. These trends do not just affect the education sector but all of us. Let’s welcome them and hope for even better trends in upcoming years. 

Spread the love

Latest trends in Laravel Development in 2021

Laravel is a PHP-based application scheme that is used for web development purposes. These are commonly used by many people as they have various added features like a fast-evolving mechanism. This is used to create modular web applications with higher levels of security.

It is very comprehensive, user-friendly, and easy to learn and to comprehend by people. It also allows web applications to be created with a wide number of features, from the basic to the highest level of performance levels.

In addition to the simplicity it upholds, the encoding experience also follows up to performance levels that are errorless and they make use of the Laravel framework or the Top laravel development company.

There are some key trends that have been adopted by Laravel Development. These comprise the database usage, cloud storage features, or database handling. This can be done by Laravel for its application development process. It also offers features that will help one to develop attractive and simple web applications.

The following are the key trends, they are the use of the Model – View – Controller (MVC), trustworthiness, innovative features, safety and security, object based library, base for startup, enhancing PHP and the future prospects of PHP, Laravel and IoT. 

MVC (Model – View – Controller)

Laravel makes complete use of the Model – View – Controller system, which is useful for both the designers and creators. Furthermore, the MVC is used by Laravel which assists in understanding the business logic and also the user interface code that is also useful for this feature.


This is another feature that allows Laravel to be widely accepted and used by the world. This helps to create and develop various websites. This helps in the process of the acceptance and makes this platform a much trusted source for the various developers. This is also very fast, efficient and it is secure. This attracts the attention of many people. This is also very dependable. 

Innovative Features

This allows the market to offer various types of the PHP frameworks that also give a very tough competition to its competitors. In order to remain highly competitive in the market. People have to opt for various innovative features overtime. Furthermore, Laravel is continuously added for its new features and allows other competitors to make use of these. 

Safety and Security

This is another important feature of Laravel framework. This ensures the users are protected well against these cyber crimes. This helps to keep them in good hands. This also ensures that the security features are well incorporated to these platforms.

As the number of cyber crimes are continuously increasing, there is a need for people to safeguard their website from these attacks. This will keep them under protected and secure measures. Furthermore, Laravel aims to provide its users a safe and secure networking system.

Object based library

This is a feature that is followed by many. This allows them to develop the respective framework. This makes use of the pre-installed Laravel library. This also makes use of the support from the large amount of data.

This also makes use of the processing to be done easily. This also comprises the information verifying system. This is of great use to its users. 

Base for Startups

Start ups are a growing field and many people are stepping forward to engage in startups. Laravel is not only a platform that supports the established organisations.

This also makes use of the various framework systems to establish and create a new startup scheme. This allows Laravel to handle large amounts of data that is well protected.

Furthermore, they can also reach out to the various other markets much more easily. This helps to reduce a lot of time wastage from taking place. This also allows for the smooth functioning of the applications. 

Enhancing the Functioning of PHP

It is important to transform a digital world. However,this process can be very challenging and tedious for people to follow. This is mainly due to the organizations which have an aim to gain users and their interest.

This increases their engagement levels. This then leaves room for continuous  improvement in web application creation. Hence in order to lead the market, individuals are trying to provide the best. Hence in the future, PHP is used to save the rapid execution process for the various codes and memory utilization.

This helps to make full use of Laravel as it is the most well-known and trendy framework across PHP.

Future uses of PHP, Laravel, and IoT

This allows the combination of all these networks. This then helps to develop a system which is closely tied and works well together by the collaborative measures.

This also helps to create new applications that are very useful and in building an application that is very clear in their goals and in the process of development. There are many best laravel development companies that are found hence people can seek their help. 

Spread the love

The Cloud: How does it Work? Explanation in Detail

We have been talking a lot about the Cloud in recent years. It is a new way to store and manage data and to dematerialize it. The most relevant examples that we can give of Cloud use are the countless online tools that we use every day and in which we store documents accessible via any computer or smartphone. Everything can be kept online, and this is possible thanks to the cloud and the advanced technology behind it.

What is Cloud Computing?

Your documents, applications, and other types of data, you can store on the hard drive of your computer or rather choose the Cloud. In the second case, it means that you are using storage computer resources accessible from the web.

Cloud reflects the fact that we often have the impression of placing our data in an intangible environment (different from the computer that we can touch) to find it there at any of our selected times, just by connecting through the internet.

If you’re using Gmail, Yahoo, or another similar webmail, you’re already using the cloud. And you may notice that your old emails and drafts are still available and right where they are, no matter what device you connect with. Google Drive and Dropbox are also cloud services capable of storing a very large amount of data that would be impossible to keep if you had to use your computer.

The tools in the Cloud are in fact very numerous and they all work on the same principle: the use of several shared and remote servers to store data and make them accessible to the Internet. 

It has been a long time since the Cloud has been used by IT specialists or companies, but its use is becoming more general and has ensued an increasingly publicized craze. What everyone knows and uses tends to be talked about more. The Cloud is also becoming an economic reality because Internet users sometimes have to pay to subscribe to the Cloud service of their choice, although some may be totally or partially free.

The different cloud systems

There are different offers available to access the Cloud, that is to say, different ways to use the storage capacity that the principle allows:

  • The SaaS: Also referred to as Software as a Service, which enables users and businesses to be able to access an application or software via a monthly or annual. This is the simplest method, but also the most used. It does not require any installation, but the accesses are done naturally by using an internet browser. You will then be able to fully use your new software for the duration of your subscription;
  • The PaaS or Platform as a Service: This method allows you to have a computing environment that can help you manage the installation, configuration, and even the use of your applications. Here, you will be able to perform updates for example, unlike SaaS where you only have options for use and not maintenance. All this goes through web hosting which helps the platform to operate and the hosting of various applications;
  • The IaaS or Infrastructure as a Service: Here, it is also subscribed to have a complete IT infrastructure, including servers, network, backup, and storage systems available in the provider’s data center. Thus, you have a Cloud service as if you had all the computer equipment necessary to use your own data center. No usage restrictions on your consumption since this virtual material belongs to you as long as you keep your subscription up to date.

Some structures or companies still prefer to have their IT system in-house for questions of confidentiality and data security, while others are quite confident about all (or part) dematerialization in the Cloud.

What is the use of the Cloud?

The primary utility of the Cloud is its flexibility and accessibility. You can access your data, applications, or servers from any workstation connected to the Internet, regardless of the screen size, the operating system, or the brand. The synchronization options reinforce this accessibility, to switch the grip from one device to another without the need to disconnect or move.

This saves a lot of time, an almost unlimited space, a power-sharing solution, but also money, when we consider how much all the equipment required for the storage of a large volume of documents or virtual machines would have cost.

And yet, we all know that current work and communication habits adapt very well to the use of the cloud, to a certain extent. This is also why USB keys are used a lot because it is often necessary to transfer data from one computer to another or to a smartphone, or to a tablet. It is thus possible while being at the office, to record any information in a SaaS software in the form of video, audio, or written document (Facebook, Gmail, Twitter, Spotify, or another software), to consult it later. in transport or at home.

It’s more or less affordable and adaptable costs, depending on the number of users, for example, make cloud services an option increasingly considered as an alternative to traditional and physical means of storage.

Cloud and online applications

We use the cloud almost every day by using online applications. They are very easy to use and exist in different fields. We have seen the example of Gmail and Yahoo, to name but a few, which are online applications or software on which most of us have opened one or more free accounts.

These applications are now democratized and there is little doubt that they are part of what made the current success of the Cloud.

There are several specificities that distinguish them: online applications adapt to all operating systems; they do not need to be installed on our computers, but just need a sufficient internet connection to function; they help with group and online work; they have a relative level of security (a big drawback).

We have the example of Google Drive for data storage, WeTransfer for sending very large documents, or Canva for photo editing.

Advantages and disadvantages of the cloud

If Cloud services are in demand as much by individuals as by companies, it is because the advantages they contain are interesting, to say the least. On the other hand, there are reservations with regard to this dematerialization model which does not allow the same control as that which is possible with hardware.

Among the advantages of using the cloud are:

  • A reduction in cost, especially for structures that no longer need to acquire all the computer equipment that was once essential to start their activities. The initial investment costs are reduced, especially for startups;
  • The possibility of unlimited bandwidth and storage ;
  • Access to very high-quality services without paying prohibitive costs;
  • The possibility of strengthening data security.

The downsides of cloud storage are nonetheless worth considering:

  • The Internet is the engine of the Cloud, if a failure occurred, the entire activity of the structure would be disrupted;
  • The structure remains technically dependent on its Cloud service provider;
  • The computer system is no longer under the perfect control of the structure and the applications used may change at any time, in favour of other more efficient or more adapted to the service provider’s equipment;
  • Confidentiality can no longer be guaranteed 100% if we consider possible cyber-attacks or technical failures;
  • Questions also arise from a legal point of view as to the location of the data and their subject to the laws and regulations in force in the national territory where the servers are located (e.g. data placed in Amazon or Google Drive, with servers based in the United States are thus subject to the “Patriot act” with the possibility for the American government to consult this data at any time).

Is the cloud secure enough?

The convenience of the cloud is no longer in doubt, but what about security?

Even though online applications can be considered reliable, until proven guilty, hacks are a common occurrence, resulting in massive theft of data for obscure purposes.

It is therefore up to a cloud service provider to ensure that the security of its users’ data is reinforced so that hacker attacks always end in failure. However, we must admit that we cannot completely trust the online applications (Dropbox, Google Drive, Skydrive, etc.) that we use and in particular to keep our files safe.

What the experts recommend is to at least try to have strong authentication, which will not allow a hacker to enter an email or an online storage platform. Today, for example, there is what is known as 2-factor authentication (2FA) including the password and phone number. The simple fact of using a very strong password, difficult to guess with numbers and symbols, is undoubtedly already a useful precaution.

You should also not take the risk of placing some row data. We will take the example of bank identifiers or medical data; these are not things to be communicated remotely and on any platform.

Online applications, in themselves, are not always honest with users since they have confidentiality rules approved that stipulate the use of user data in order to improve their services, without falling into the details. You can therefore take care to read the conditions of use that we present to you or at least make a restriction on the type of documents that you share.

You always have the option of turning to online applications that you trust more because in the end, the cloud has become essential, if only for basic use.

Some Cloud solutions, especially recommended for companies, also allow the use of an encryption key for your accesses so that only you can consult your data.

The leading providers of free cloud storage

In general, online users are often looking for cloud services for free storage. These online applications are free, but with paid options when a certain level of storage is exceeded.

Some of these online storage tools include:

    • Google Drive: the Google tool that you can access for free as soon as you have a Gmail account;
    • Dropbox;
    • Microsoft OneDrive;
    • Apple iCloud;
    • Amazon Cloud Drive;
    • OpenDrive etc.

The cloud market is currently very developed and several tech giants have also taken to it by creating their own cloud service, with increased demand from users. Companies are also increasingly using the Cloud, taking advantage of low-cost plans and thus saving on their expenditure on IT resources. The Cloud is also very practical to facilitate the use of digital tools even if it sometimes arouses a certain suspicion. However, we have to believe that this computer system is well on its way to last and to develop further for years to come.

Spread the love

Signal App: Everything You Need To Know About The Messaging App

Ever since Whatsapp updated its privacy terms. People started looking for new ways to stay connected with their friends and family members. Numerous apps came into the limelight, but the one that stole all the thunder was the Signal App. Thanks to Elon Musk’s tweet, people are downloading the app at god’s speed. Whenever there is a new trend, people are often baffled and look to gain information about it. If you are one of them, then this article can help you gain some insights about the app. In today’s article, we will decode all information there is to know about this app. 

What is Signal App?

The signal app messaging and voice-talk platform, which is free of cost, similar to WhatsApp. The most important difference is in “Privacy”. Even, the tagline of the Signal messaging app is “Say hello to privacy”. A line that most users will resonate with, given the current circumstances with Whatsapp.

If you visit the Wikipedia page of the signal app, you will find that it was launched on the 29th of July 2014. But according to the current information, the stable version of the app was released in December 2020 for android and in January for the IOS platform. 

The Signal app runs on donations it gets from the non-profit Signal Foundation organization. Brian Acton, the co-founder of WhatsApp, and Moxie Marlinspike, the CEO of the Signal messenger app. started The Signal Foundation.

How Does Signal App Work?

All things considered, using the Signal app is quite simple. You can easily download it onto your iPhone, Android, or desktop for free and begin chatting with your friends and family members. Registration is done with simply your phone number, and the app would then be able to scan over your contacts to see which numbers in your contacts are using Signal messaging app. 

You can use this app on either your phone or PC. If you start a chat using your phone, you can use a QR code to sign in on your PC and continue the rest of the conversation there — however, you won’t have the option to see the past messages (the ones you sent using your phone). Signal messages are stored on mobile phones, rather than in the digital space of the app. That is because Signal uses an open-source protocol to encrypt everything from messages to recordings, voice updates to photographs. In tech-talk, that implies you can look at the source code keeping your Signal messages hidden for just yourself on GitHub. In easy words, it implies that your messages will remain your messages — if you are the only one who can access your phones, then you’ll be the only one who’ll see them.

Key Features of Signal App:


It’s a messaging app. This app lets users send messages between two phones. Like you can send instant messages to your friends and family members online. In this way, you don’t need to pay SMS charges to your service provider. 

Private and Safe Data Sharing

It provides a messaging network that lets the user send messages with end-to-end encryption which keeps your messages secure. They don’t invade your privacy by reading your messages and listening to your calls. The platform is secure so no one else can read or listen to your private conversations

Voice and Video calling

You can now call and video call anybody in this world with no network charges by the assistance of the internet. The signal messaging app gives perfectly clear voice and video calling services to users. 


You can send stickers to your contacts with encryption. Along these lines, nobody can decode your sticker. You can also make and offer your custom stickers. 


It has a group feature which lets you create a group with your family, friends and other contacts. Thus, you can undoubtedly share information with every single individual from the group. 

No promotions and no trackers 

The signal is a totally non-profitable app so there are no advertisements on this app. No advertisements imply no affiliate marketers and no trackers exist to follow your activities. 


It is a totally open source project for engineers. Thus, anybody can assist with building up this app for making it more user-friendly and more secure.

Benefits of Signal App:

  • The messages, audio calls, video calls, group calls and even the stickers sent are start to end-to-end encrypted. This encryption technology that Signal originally created is presently used by WhatsApp and Skype. 
  • The messages on your chats can be set to disappear after a specific time. This time frame can be decided by the user based on their needs. 
  • The users cannot add members to their groups without their permission.
  • The messages on Signal are stored on the gadget itself, which is your cell phone. The Signal app staff don’t store the information nor does it permit the users to backup their Signal conversations on the cloud (Google Drive or iCloud). This implies that when you transfer to another number or get another cell phone, you can’t move your messages on the new gadget or number. 
  • The signal app can also work on the PC or desktop simply like WhatsApp. However, the difference here is that all the chats that are on your cell phone don’t get stored on the PC and the other way around. 
  • You can send a message to any contact that exists on your contact list. Customers who don’t have the Signal messaging app installed on the phone will be sent messages through normal SMS. 
  • The sound and video calls on the Signal app are end-to-end encrypted. This can be seen through the little padlock symbol close to the telephone symbol. 
  • To move a current WhatsApp group to the Signal app, you need to make another group on Signal by adding only one individual from the group. Afterwards, share a generated group invite link on the WhatsApp group that you need to move to the Signal app. The users on WhatsApp can join the recently formed group on Signal by tapping on the link. 
  • You can also send messages to yourself on the Signal app through the ‘Note to Self’ choice. By this, you can keep a rundown or a note of significant things. 
  • The signal app gives you an alternative to blur your profile photograph.

WhatsApp vs Signal vs Telegram

WhatsApp is right now the biggest messaging platform on the earth, with more than 2 billion users. Telegram has around 400 million users, while Signal has around 20 million users. 

While WhatsApp stands undefeated given a large number of users, we can’t avoid the developing market and popularity of Telegram and Signal. 

The update in WhatsApp’s privacy policy has given a chance for the market for these two other giants to grow.


WhatsApp has all the ingredients for a perfect recipe. This social messaging app has also added a payment feature to its hat. Users can add up to 256 members in the group. You can broadcast messages to various contacts, and also support voice and video calls, both for people and groups. 

    • Group video calls (that can handle 8 users at any given time).
    • WhatsApp Status feature (also known as WhatsApp stories).
    • Whatsapp allows you to share a wide range of files and documents (up to 100MB).
    • Photographs, videos and audio notes can be shared up to 16 MB.
    • Users can also share live location with their contacts. 
    • WhatsApp backup and restore messages and data on google drive and iCloud.
    • WhatsApp uses end-to-end encryption (E2E) for messages, video calls, voice calls, photographs and any other data. 
    • WhatsApp utilizes E2E protocol created by Open Whisper Systems, same as Signal


Telegram offers support to groups with up to 200,000 contacts. Known for its huge and monstrous groups, Telegram offers a lot of group features, for example, bots, surveys, tests and hashtags, extensive for a large group experience. 

    • Telegram offers self-destructing messages. These messages disappear after a said point in time. 
    • You can share files as large as 1.5 GB on Telegram. 
    • Telegram supports video and voice calls as well. 
    • Telegram supports E2E a secret chat feature.
    • Telegram has confirmed that it shares 0 bytes of data with any third party or government.


Going to the most latest member to the messaging party, Signal offers secure messaging, voice, and video calls and these are end-to-end encrypted. You can make groups, but you can’t broadcast messages to numerous contacts at once. Signal also lets its users make group calls. 

    • Like Telegram, Signal also supports self-destructing messages 
    • A Note to Self feature is also a highlight of the app. You can share your thoughts and ideas under this feature.
    • Signal permits relay voice calls to its users, identity isn’t shared, same as using a VPN 
    • Signal uses back-end user-facing encryption administration 
    • It uses the open-source Signal Protocol to accomplish end-to-end encryption 
    • Signal additionally encrypts your metadata offering several layers of security

WhatsApp vs Signal vs Telegram: Which Messaging Giant is More Secure?

WhatsApp doesn’t encrypt backups (cloud or local). Whatsapp also doesn’t encrypt metadata, not at all like Signal, which is used to convey conversations between two endpoints. WhatsApp group chats have been before discovered to be filed on Google search, significant information breach. 

Telegram group chats are not encrypted except if you use Secret Chats, which again just lets you chat to one contact at a time. 

Regarding client security, Signal offers the most secure communication you can find on the internet. But the most secure app Signal falls short when it comes to all the fancy features WhatsApp and Telegram are offering. Signal naturally encrypts all the local files with a 4-digit passphrase. It also encrypts all the group calls.

What Sets Signal App Apart


It has been shown to us time and time again that we cannot trust Facebook with our personal data. However, well over a billion people decide to send their most personal messages over apps made by the organization. And keeping in mind that Facebook says it can’t access messages sent over WhatsApp and doesn’t access messages sent via Facebook Messenger. But the organization mines your use of those apps for other information, for example how frequently you chat with somebody and whose contact numbers you have saved in your contact list. 

Facebook doesn’t permit outside protection and security specialists to assess its data collection methods, nor the code of its messaging apps. That implies we simply need to take their word for it and trust that they are not taking advantage of any personal information. Also, many studies have shown that not a lot of people are willing to trust the organization with their data.


So why escape from Facebook Messenger and WhatsApp to Signal and not some other messaging app? Since Signal is the only major messaging platform that can run on various platforms (such as android and ios) and avoids following you and your connections to other people. All the other major apps out there track you. And while Apple messages don’t. They are only available to iOS and macOS. Android users are not that lucky, so Signal app might come in handy.

About Signal App Security And Privacy

With regards to security, the Signal messaging protocol is by and large viewed as the most secure messaging protocol available. It is acceptable to such an extent that numerous other messaging apps, including Facebook Messenger, Skype, and WhatsApp, have claimed to adopt the protocol to be used in their apps. 

With regards to privacy, Signal is a sure shot winner. As we examined before, Signal just records three pieces of data about their users. This is far less data than other platforms collect. Furthermore, Signal gives you a chance to take the privacy protections a step further. There are a lot of articles that can give you detailed directions on how to create your Signal account without using your phone number.

Spread the love

Make your iPhone App more secure with SSL Pinning

What is SSL pinning?

An HTTPS connection has a valid certificate and a cipher suite. The certificate is presented to server presents during handshaking. It is the essential component that serves as proof of the identity of the server. The client will trust the server if it provides a valid certificate signed by one of the trusted Certificate Authorities. Otherwise, aborts the connection.

An attacker can either install a malicious root CA certificate to user devices. So, the client will trust all certificates signed by the attacker, or even worse, compromised a CA completely. Therefore, trusting on the certificates received from servers alone cannot guarantee the authenticity of the server. Your server is vulnerable to a potential man-in-the-middle attack.Secure Socket Layer Pinning is a technique used in the client-side to avoid a man-in-the-middle attack. This technique validates the server certificates even after SSL handshaking and pins a list of trustful certificates to the client during development. They, then use them to compare against the server certificates during runtime. The connection disrupts if there is a mismatch between the server and the local copy of certificates. This ensures that no further user data goes to that server. In short, SSL pinning ensures the user devices are communicating only to the dedicated trustful servers.

Developers must take extra caution in SSL Pinning. When a pinned certificate expires, the server gets a new certificate. The new certificate is different from the pinned certificate. So, the clients will not trust the updated certificate and therefore terminate the connection. Communication established between clients and servers is basically ‘bricked’. Therefore, to avoid such a situation,  always pin the future certificates in the client applications before release.

There are two ways to achieve SSL Pinning in client applications.  You can either pin the whole certificate or its hashed public key. The hashed public key pinning is the preferred approach that uses the same private key for signing the updated certificate. This approach can save the trouble of pinning a new hashed public key for a new certificate, and reduce the risk of app ‘bricking’.

How to make your iOS Apps more secure using SSL pinning?

SSL pinning comes into the picture as one of the best app security options while looking for ios game application development services. A system library does the task of maintaining the SSL session. The app trying to establish connection does not determine which certificate to trust and which not to.The SSL encryption happens based on Public Key Infrastructure and a session key. Encrypting and decrypting public uses a lot of energy and slows down the communication process. That is when the session key came into play. Asymmetric session key exchanged with the SSL handshake reduces the risk of asymmetrically encrypting data at the source and decrypting it at the destination.The certificate’s chain of trust determines the security aspect of SSL. The client checks the server’s SSL certificate as the communication process starts. The client will check if the received certificate is an issue by the Trusted Root CA store or other user-trusted certificates.

Although SSL is pretty much unbreakable, there is still an actual threat of the man-in-the-middle attack. This can happen with ARP poisoning and DNS spoofing. With ARP cache poisoning, an attack is possible depending on the Address Resolution Protocol. Address Resolution is responsible for mapping the IP address to the devices MAC address. For example, consider a network containing a common user’s device A, the attacker’s device B and router C.Device B sends the ARP reply packet to the device A acting as router C. Then, A sends another ARP reply to C identifying as device B and completes the attack.DNS spoofing is an attack technique that corrupts the name server’s domain name mapping. Here, the attacker forces the DNS to return an incorrect IP address and divert the traffic to theirs.

There are different ways through which you can implement SSL Pinning in iPhone game development services. You can secure your iOS with SSL pinning using NSURLSession, AlamoFire and AFNetworking. NSURLSession SSL pinning is a bit tricky. Here, there is no option to cancel all responses that do not match with the certificate automatically. To implement SSL pinning on NSURLSession, we need to do perform all checks manually.

Alamofire SSL pinning is simple. The ServeTrustPolicy.certificates Bundle method in AlamoFire returns all certificates in the bundle. First, we load the certificates in the created ServerTrustPolicy object. Then the object is instantiated with a dictionary to map the domain name to the ServerTrustPolicy. We are only pinning the predefined domain in AlamoFire.

SSL pinning in AFNetworking is straightforward. You have to assign an AFSecurityPolicy policy object to the AFHTTPRequestOperationManager. It will scan through your bundle by default.

Spread the love

Benefits of having Website to your Business

There are many benefits of having a website both for small business owners and for big business owners, for startups and for large corporations. 

One of the most obvious benefits of having a small business website is that it empowers people to find you online and get in touch with you easily. 

If you plan on having enough customers, you need an online presence to give your clients information at the click of a button. 

It is extremely easy to create a social media profile such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, or LinkedIn.

List of advantages below:

  1. Builds Credibility

your business will gain credibility. Think about when you’re trying to find a selected item; you’ve got a fast google search and find an internet site that’s competitive and has great reviews. That being said, you would like to make sure you stay current, look professional and are available up in search engines otherwise you’ll lose that status in no-time.

  1. Improves Customer Service

It’s a known incontrovertible fact that having an internet presence will assist you improve your customer service. If you’re a store owner and have staff-members, you can’t oversee them 24/7 to watch how they’re interacting with clients. In the online world, however, nothing stays secret; you’ll monitor your staff’s work and ensure your customers are receiving a speedy and helpful reply.

  1. Makes Your Business Accessible at All Times

A website is out there to you and your customers 24/7, three hundred and sixty five days a year. If they’re awake at 1 am and are thinking of buying something from you, they will click on your site and do that instantaneously –a win-win situation for all. Having a web presence also provides them with the convenience of reviewing your products and services when your store or office is closed.

  1. Targets Larger Markets

Whether you provide products or services, a web website is an alternate location to sell them. You can reach clients that are in another town or country just by simply having an internet presence. With our busy lifestyles we are reverting to browsing online – gone are the times where hours are spent in physical shops finding out products. A website can promote your products 100 times faster than a store-front, window display.

  1. Helps You Beat the Competition

Following on from the previous benefit, a well-marketed site can assist you to gain market share at the expense of your competition. In order to try to do this, you would like an excellent website that gives users a singular experience.

Benefits of a Website for your Business

  1. You Can Develop an Online Presence
  2. It’s Possible to Target Local Customers
  3. You Can Save Money on Paper Advertisements.
  4. You Can Provide Personalised Email Addresses for Your Employees
  5. You Can Make Sales Online
  6. Social Media Can Help Promote Your Business

It won’t be that if you wanted to advertise your business, your options were limited. You could distribute flyers, remove ads within the local newspaper, or even buy a TV spot. However, the online provides you with entirely new ways to succeed in your audience.

On one side from expanding your business, having a website also provides you with an entirely new channel you can use to make sales. These days, you’re not restricted to only selling products through your physical shop.

A lot of individuals think that social media are often a replacement for an internet site. As far as we’re concerned, however, you need both a site and a social presence if you want to maximise your reach online. Plus, you’ll want to advertise all of your social pages right from your website.

This article is contributed by Avatar Studio is One of the best website design company in Bangalore

Spread the love

Top 10 Entry Level IT Jobs

So you have decided to try your hand in the IT industry. The entry-level jobs in any sector can be a bit challenging. Whenever we think of entry-level positions, our minds often wander in the direction of overworked and underpaid jobs. A lot of companies often ask for experience when they are looking for potential employees. But these listings are a wish-list that companies have for the perfect candidate. Before applying for these positions the candidates need to assess whether they can perform the tasks. Instead of matching the skills and experience with the requirements, it is important to know whether you can add value to the company. Here you will find a list of Top 10 Entry Level IT Jobs.

Top 10 Entry Level IT Jobs in 2021

The IT industry is one of the hottest right now. The shift towards the online market has opened a world of possibilities for all the aspiring candidates who wish to make a career in this industry. To make a career in this sector, you have to follow some mantras. This sector is all about skills. Adding new skills and polishing your existing skills is a must. This will help you stand out from the competition and increase your chances of getting selected. 

Here are some of the Entry Level IT Jobs you can consider if you are right out of college and are looking for some exposure in the IT sector. Top 10 Entry Level IT Jobs starts as :


Digital marketing managers are responsible for digital and social media promotion for an organization or brand. These managers focus on increasing sales, brand awareness, and client satisfaction. They frequently deal with the entirety of the organization’s clients confronting the web presence, including websites, social media profiles, promoting, and different communications. 

Digital marketing managers are additionally on the front line of finding new roads for digital advancement. When new sites, platforms, and technologies are delivered, they must survey whether the same might be a decent advertising answer for the brand. 

Abilities to possess (to have or to learn): 

The tech abilities you will require for a digital marketing manager’s position incorporate some knowledge of Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) and Search Engine Marketing (SEM). Experience with change tests and investigations, and capability with showcasing database applications, email, social media, and web-based advertising. 


Digital strategists work together with other colleagues on the long-term goals and strategies of a brand. This additionally incorporates proposals for the particular strategies used to implement that system. It is an extraordinary situation for somebody who is creative and appreciates teaming up with others. They frequently work intimately with the marketing team, as well as sales and product teams. 

Abilities to possess (to have or to learn): 

If you need to turn into a digital strategist, you will need a couple of tech and digital abilities. Generally along the lines of online advertising, creating HTML emails and email marketing, metrics and analytics programs, and social networking.


Content marketing managers handle the promoting centered content of a brand, including composing blog entries, pamphlets, white papers, and now and again social media posts that line up with the organization’s strategy. They also promote that content regularly in a joint effort with others on the marketing teams. 

Abilities to possess (to have or to learn): 

Being able to reliably come up with new and creative thoughts for content and how to promote it is an essential ability that content marketing managers need to have. It is also convenient if you have some fundamental HTML and CSS skills (for making email campaigns just as organizing blog entries and articles). Just as WordPress abilities since there is a decent possibility that is the thing that you will be publishing content with (WordPress is by a wide margin the most mainstream content administration framework (CMS) out there). 


Web developers make the code that powers websites and web applications. The web developers work with programming languages including HTML, CSS, JavaScript, Ruby on Rails, PHP, and Python. They likewise keep up and scale sites as they develop and advance over the long run. A few engineers work closely with designers, while others take on both of the roles. In case you are new to tech and you have zero experience in the field. Then you will presumably need to search for work titles like “Junior Web Developer” or “Jr Web Engineer” rather than senior ones.

Abilities to possess (to have or to learn): 

Being able to come up with new designs and implement them as indicated by the designer’s specifications is an indispensable ability that engineers need to have, regardless of what kind of coding language they are working in. Engineers frequently have tight cutoff times to meet, so make sure you enjoy a fast-paced environment is an absolute necessity. 


Data analysts gather data and information to discover an understanding of specific topics. Data is regularly gathered through reviews, metrics, and different methods, and afterward, experts aggregate the data, decipher it, and present it in easier to understand designs (like diagrams or infographics). It is also their responsibility to identify where improvements can be made to processes based on hard data and to identify trends in data they collect.

Abilities to possess (to have or to learn): 

Data analysts should be capable of databases, programming languages like JavaScript or XML, and data mining and segmentation processes. Design skills are also a welcomed skill since presenting your findings in a simple and easy to understand manner way is vital. 


Digital analysts gather, break down, and interpret digital promoting data. They make and recognize key performance metrics, and evaluate how successful various approaches are. They also frequently participate in A/B testing, client feedback and research, and other advertising data collection. Great digital analysts possess a blend of business and marketing skills, technical skills, and analytical skills.

Abilities to possess  (to have or to learn): 

Digital analysts need to have a piece of in-depth knowledge on measurement applications Google Analytics and tools for A/B testing and customer research. Basic HTML and CSS abilities are additionally helpful. Since it makes testing more streamlined (since minor changes don’t need to be done through a designer or engineer). In any case, since you can learn HTML and CSS through free coding camps, this is an ideal Entry Level IT job for amateurs. 


Project managers are the Type A coordinators who keep web improvement or other tech-related groups on track. That may mean interfacing with clients if you end up working at a digital organization or web design firm. Their job also includes day-to-day coordinating between web designers, web developers, and other stakeholders. PMs will run a ton of gatherings and compose a ton of recap messages, so extraordinary presentation and communication skills are not only a requirement, they are an unquestionable requirement. 

Abilities to possess  (to have or to learn): 

When you are further down the project management career path, there are formal seminars on project management (and resulting certifications). Yet if you are new to tech, a junior project manager role relies heavily on communication and interpersonal skills.

All things considered, since you will be working at a tech group, working knowledge of HTML and CSS also another web design and graphic design platforms is an incredible advantage (so you realize how to speak with your tech colleagues!). If your firm builds new sites on WordPress or another CMS, they may need you to have the option to step in and help customers with more modest projects—like arranging the page or uploading the content. Finally, it is incredible to have working information on different project management platforms like Basecamp, JIRA, Slack, and so forth. 


Like junior web developers, junior web designers ordinarily function as collaborators or understudies to more experienced designers in a group. That may mean assisting with the organizing of weekly newsletters, producing resources for different presentations or projects, or in any event, designing simpler and smaller websites. Web designers work with HTML and CSS just as programs like Photoshop (for making wireframes, mockups, and webpage resources). 

Abilities to possess (to have or to learn): 

You will require some working information on plan essentials, design fundamentals (likely through the Adobe Creative Suite—so if you have print design experience, you are already better than the rest), and how HTML and CSS work. Bonus points in case you are knowledgeable in responsive design, which is the business standard nowadays. 


The ascent of content marketing has helped the position of Social Media Manager/ Social Media Coordinator qualify as a “tech work.” Social media jobs are an extraordinary Entry level IT Job for anybody keen on making a career in digital marketing. To dominate as a social media manager, you will need to feel good about pulling data and reports. Sorting out social schedules and following examples to devise some new techniques for development. A considerable lot of these jobs also advantage from working information on design and writing skills. (You must realize how to compose quippy subtitles!) 

Abilities to possess (to have or to learn): 

Attention to detail, extreme passion for social media trends, copywriting skills, fundamental information on analytics tools and data interpretation, and some involvement in social media scheduling tools (MeetEdgar, HubSpot, Later, and so forth) 


In case you are energetic about writing and editing. Also, to have some tech aptitudes, a web editor job may be ideal for you. Consider this a standout amongst other tech jobs for people who do not have much experience in tech. Numerous sites publish content every day, regardless of whether that is as blog content or new product pages. A web editor is liable for uploading, formatting, and optimizing that content for visitors. Now and then, the web editor is additionally important for the publication group, assisting with reexamining articles to ensure they are better formatted for digital readers. 

Abilities to possess (to have or to learn): 

You will require solid information on content management systems (WordPress is best, yet nowadays, numerous sites are run on Squarespace too) and in a perfect world some copywriting aptitudes. Many locales are progressively keen on streamlining for search, so some SEO experience would be a huge advantage. 



In reality, this job intently matches a web editor job. The fundamental differentiation (assuming any) is that while a web editor may assume a part in altering content, most web content managers (some of the time called CMS administrators) are answerable for the way toward formatting and optimizing that content for the web. 

Regularly, these jobs exist at bigger online business or media locales where there is a great deal of content to upload, publish, and refresh. This is an extraordinary job for somebody who is careful and likes getting things coordinated. It is also an incredible job if you would prefer to move into a digital editor or publicist job sometime in the future, but you are aware that your writing skills need a bit of polishing.

Abilities to possess (to have or to learn): 

Concrete information on how content management systems work, mainly WordPress. Proven experience in Excel or any other spreadsheet programs. Search Engine Optimization knowledge and attention to detail is a plus.

Spread the love

Automation Testing Interview Questions

Are you a software geek preparing for an interview? Well, we wish you a hearty, ‘All the best!’ 

Nervous? About What? Automation testing! Here are some questions you need to prepare to ace an interview!  

Test automation has an essential role to play in the entire software development lifecycle.  

A lot of times when people prepare for an automation testing interview, they focus only on the automation tool-specific questions.

However, people should also consider the fact that learning and knowing about the automation tools is not the same as knowing about the automation testing and hence it’s not the ultimate goal. 

 Thus, whenever you are preparing for a ‘test automation’ interview, it is essential for you to consider ‘Automation’ as a whole and focus on its framework and all the steps involved. 


What are automation and automation testing? 

 Automation is any form of action that can help reduce human effort. 

Automation testing is of course, automated. This is completely different from manual testing as in manual testing, a human is responsible for testing the functionality of the software in the way a user would. 

Automation testing is a software testing method used to test and compare the expected outcomes with the actual outcomes. It is achieved by using automation tools or by writing test scripts. 

Automation testing is used to automate testing tasks that are difficult to perform manually like repetitive tasks. It requires far less time than manual testing due to the fact that automation testing is done with the help of an automation tool while humans perform manual testing. Less time is needed in exploratory tests and more time is needed in maintaining test scripts while increasing overall test coverage just like mystery rooms.


What are the tests that can be automated? 

Following are the things/tests that can be automated: 

  • Build deployment 
  • Test data creation 
  • Regression test suite 
  • Smoke / Sanity test suite 

Automating behind the graphical user interface like testing of APIs. 


Is test automation useful or not? 

Automation testing proves to be useful in the following scenarios: 

Non-functional Testing: Automation-testing is used to test the non-functional aspects of an application. 

For Example, Performance testing and load testing are very difficult tasks for humans to track and analyze. 

Regression Testing: Regression testing is done in case of a bug fix or new module implementation, then is important to make sure that the already implemented and unchanged functionality is not affected in any manner. In this case, the people end up running the regression test multiple times. 

For Example: After each change request or bug fix and after every iteration in the case of the incremental development approach. 

Repeated execution of the same tests: Sometimes, it is important to run the same set of test cases for a different set of data. Also, after each build release or on multiple hardware and software or a combination of hardware and software. 

Automating the test cases in the above scenarios helps in maximising the speed of testing and minimising human errors. 

Complex calculation: Automation testing in this case helps in checking or testing scenarios that are prone to human errors. 


 Is it possible to achieve 100% automation? 

100% automation is difficult to achieve because then there will be a lot of edge test cases and some cases that are not executed very often. Automating these test cases which are not executed very often will not be able to add value to the automated suite. 


How can we identify the test cases which are suitable for automation? 

The most important step towards automation testing is the identification of the most appropriate test cases for automation. 


How to decide the automation tool that one should use for their Automation testing in the projects? 

To identify the best tool for Automation testing for your project you need to do the following: 

  1. You need to understand your project requirements thoroughly and identify the testing scenarios that you want to automate. 
  2. Lookup and search for the list of tools that support your project’s requirements. 
  3. Plan out your budget for the automation tool. Then, choose the tools within your budget. 
  4. Be sure that you already have skilled resources for using the automation tools. If you don’t have the necessary skilled resources for using the automation tool then identify the cost for training the existing resources or hiring new resources for the work. 
  5. Compare each automation tool with the key criteria: 
  6. Once you have compared the best automation tools for your purpose, select the tool which is within your budget and supports your project requirement, and gives you more advantage based on the key criteria. 


What are the key criteria for automation testing tools? 


The key criterion for automation testing tools is as follows: 

Does the automation tool have test reporting functionality? If not, can it be easily configured to the tool? Is that automation tool suitable for cross-browser support for web-based applications? How many different testing types can the tool support? 

  • How many languages does this automation tool support? 
  • Is it easy to develop and maintain the scripts for the tool? 
  • Can a non-technical person also execute the test cases with some simple training? 

Is the tool able to support different types of platforms like web, mobile, desktop, and much more based on your project requirements? 


What is the next step after deciding the automation tool to use? 

Once the tool is finalised, the next step is to design the framework. 

What is the framework? 

A framework is a part of the structure of the entire automation suite. It is also a guideline, which when followed properly, can result in a structure that is easily maintained and enhanced. 

The guideline of the framework includes: 

  • Handling of environment files and properties file 
  • Reporting of data 
  • Handling logs 
  • Coding standards 
  • Handling the test data 
  • Maintaining and handling the elements (object repository in QTP) 


Final Words: 

The questions above are the main questions that are important for automation tools or programming language. Automation testing interviews also include tool and programming language-specific questions depending upon the tool that the people have worked with. 

Most of the test automation interview questions are centered on the framework that the person develops, so it is recommended that everyone creates and understands their test framework thoroughly. 

Have you gone through all the Q&A? Now, get ready and crack any software interview! 

Spread the love

Software Development Methodology

Software development is an art. Because of this art software developers develop quality software. Software development comprises on series of step and each step is atomic step designed towards the perfecting of software. A bug free and time saving software product is the result of true and applicable methodology. The steps involved in the development engineering are long, conceptual and cumbersome. Software production is because of lot of hard work, ideas, experience and testing. Software developers are always struggling to deliver the best by introducing the new versions of software. It is always challenge for the software developers to provide the version of their product that can compete the market.

Software methodology is actual process that is gone through out the development of the software. It comprises a series of steps that are researching, planning, analysing, designing, coding etc. This means that software developers are customising according to needs of their clients. The basic standards that are required for implementation of software methodology are long term experience, industry knowledge and technology to develop software.

Have you ever counted that how fast technology is growing if you compare it with its earlier time? If we go two years back, we will observe exponential progress. Even our life style has changed and now we can complete our task at very rapid speed. Because of technology advancement our social life has improved. Things that were our dream in the past are happening very quickly today.

Whenever we discuss software methodology, it means we are talking about the agile methodology that is very recent introduction in the software industry. The word agile means ability to be quick with technology. It may also have the meaning that it can be more versatile with practice

If we ponder over the market, we will see hundreds of similar software is in the market and selecting accurate one is a tough job. Never compromise on the quality and keep in mind that software is always updated with the arrival of new technology norms , so do future agreement with the company to run your business smoothly.

SAP software modules are fulfilling the requirements of each size industry. Select software modules that are very necessary to run your business. With the deployment of this software, you also need professionals that can run these software modules. If you have already software professional, manage SAP training for them.

Spread the love

Conventional Capabilities Online at SharePoint

This year, Microsoft released several new SharePoint capabilities to help boost user engagement with the platform. In particular, Microsoft continued modernizing SharePoint Online, adding new features. Furthermore, it plans on improving the user productivity of the platform when employees use it for accessing and interacting with their digital assets. 

SharePoint Online is offered as a communications and collaboration tool for intranets. As the platform is being updated by Microsoft, SharePoint development services also feel the need to improve to stay on the competitive edge. 

SharePoint Online Capabilities

A SharePoint development company today provides updated services as Microsoft continues to upgrade the platform to provide better solutions to organizations across all industry verticals. Typically, the flexible platform includes several conventional capabilities, such as the following.

  1. Intranets

SharePoint Online lets you set up an intranet for the sharing of business information. It acts as a meeting room for each person within the company to visit during their working session. Employees could find the latest organization news, announcements, or scheduled tasks. 

Moreover, it could even opt to customize dashboards by the department. SharePoint has tools for setting up platforms for enhanced employee interactions. 

  1. Extranets

Setting a website in which you could interact with business partners and other stakeholders is also possible with SharePoint Online. This is perfect for the exclusive sharing of common interests with partner organizations. Moreover, you could also provide or access to affiliate services. 

  1. The Document Management Systems

You could exactly use it in the same way as a traditional file server, complete with security groups and folder structure to determine who has access to what. Some differences however are:

now you have any device, anywhere, secure files access

sharing externally is possible with controls

nothing to change

With SharePoint Online, users are at the top to build a site that could have several libraries or sub-sites even. Big organizations could enable every department to have its sub-site for boosting communication. SharePoint takes into account that each organization has a unique classification in terms of storage, and offers flexibility for customizing web structure according to complex business needs.

  1. Collaboration

The platform servers as a collaboration tool for various people working on the same project and sharing the same documents. Everyone will have a version of the same documents, making it easy for all to stay updated with the project. The platform also acts as a portal to connect companies in different locations. 

Rather than having to wait to share and interact ideas during a meeting, people could reach out to one another anytime, fostering innovation and boosting productivity. 

  1. Business Intelligence Capability

With SharePoint Online, you can have a birds-eye view of company operations. This provides several ways of making well-informed decisions. Searching through files and find bigger patterns to show progress or setbacks experience is easy. 

SharePoint Online is also great in discovering trends and relationships between various variables, such as the way a marketing team does interaction with the sales teams to drive sales and leads. Data could be used to get different departments on board. 

  1. Security

With extensive security features, SharePoint Online enables you to configure security at a document, folder, site, or library level. This way, information is not visible to the view of the user if they have no required access level. 

You could also opt to control the document life cycles with compliance policies. For example, you could use policies like archival, routing, or expiration policies. 

Why Organizations Migrate to SharePoint Online

To keep up with the improvements made by Microsoft on the SharePoint platform, a SharePoint developer has to build solutions that meet the evolving needs of customers. These days, more and more organizations are migrating from On-Premise SharePoint to Online SharePoint. Here’s why. 

 Automatic Updates

You must factor in the costs expected that come with an upgrade with SharePoint On-prem. Online SharePoint however provides automatic upgrades to the latest versions as well as additions. You don’t have to worry about patches, or update maintenance, enabling you to focus on the business aspects of things. 

Easier Management

SharePoint On-Prem works using a database server, web front end, and the app server to deliver the services configured on them, making management quite complex. You need to hire an IT team or a SharePoint consultant team for maintaining the server, do patches and updates. SharePoint Online on the other hand has nothing to manage, meaning that you could eradicate the need to purchase more hardware, like servers. 

Migrating of Content

With SharePoint Online, you could only move content once. With the on-premise, it sets a time limit, which ranges from three to five years for the upgrades required. Online SharePoint in contrast does not set a limit for the time you get to remain until moving to the next version. Thus, when you move content, you only have to do it once. 

SharePoint Online 2020, the New Features

  1. Microsoft Intelligent Search Integration

Microsoft, with OneDrive and SharePoint, plans on releasing an AI content search engine named the Project Context in acknowledging that often employees struggle to locate pertinent data in presentations and emails. The new service has AI algorithms designed for Office 365 content interaction to deliver search results going further traditional keyword-based searches. The AI engine could be used for sifting through all data accessible within the ecosystem of Office 365, asking queries with natural language. 

  1. Enhanced UI Navigation for SharePoint Users

Another new feature is the responsive mega menus, which display and render on mobiles or a full desktop version for all SharePoint websites, which include those not related to hub websites. The management feature is attractive to developers since it provides a way of delivering shortcuts natively to the various SharePoint web pages, with one navigation menu that could list them under various headings. 

  1. Facelift for Yammer

Yammers, an enterprise social networking platform lets users with a similar email domain connect received the much-needed facelift this year. In conjunction with SharePoint, the platform displays user conversation feeds through a web part in the web pages.  

Today, Yammer provides enhanced and new features to users, like customizable Yammer, feeds, giving users the ability of filtering content into what they want to see. 

To Conclude

For you to make the most of SharePoint Online, you have to work with someone who truly knows how things should be done, like a SharePoint consultant Sydney for instance. 

Spread the love

Schools On Web – Experience The Learning

SOW i.e. Schools On Web is a passionate group of highly experienced education professionals and technology enthusiasts,bring the most affordable range of one stop learning solutions. SOW team is here to recreate your success stories with the masses!

SOW vision is to connect the dots between different levels of education and creating an unending success bridge

Schools on WEB helps schools to brings together the management, teachers and parents, all on the same platform with one objective – ‘Holistic Development of Students’. with our solution deployed at schools, the management, the teachers can let go off the resource and academic planning on us, so that most of their time is devoted in development of students!

An Ed-Tech initiative to empower schools with one stop digital solution to take care of all of the learning needs of Students, Teachers, Parents and Schools. Schools On WEB promotes in-school learning instead of after-school learning. Students spend most of their time in just consuming knowledge instead of applying it in real world.

Their should be enough time for students to actually apply the same knowledge in their real-life which happens after school with their families or friends. Students should find learning to be found in every act they do.

Considering the current education situations, Schools On WEB bringing one-stop solution covering:-

  1.  Competitive prep in association with premium academies of INDIA
  2. One stop Knowledge hub to explore available Careers, opportunities and scholarships around the world.
  3. Ed-Tech Awareness programs for School, Parents, Teachers and Students
  4. SOW campus for exploring in-school learning programs Schools On WEB inviting Inviting Schools to activate अपना आत्मनिर्भर Digital School for FREE!

Click on link to apply Schools administrations will be contacted once applications are processed. On the last day a webinar will be conducted.

Schools applicants in pre-launch offer will get “1 lac worth Program – NEO Ed-Tech awareness 2020 program for Schools” for Free!!”

Contact Details

Website and Registration Link :

Facebook : noesis.schoolsonweb

Twitter : @schools_on_web

Instagram : schoolsonweb

Linked In :schools-on-web

Spread the love

10 Reasons to Study Computer Science

If you take up computer science as your major course in college, you will have an in-depth knowledge of the hardware and software devices and how these are used to benefit you, the workforce, and other aspects in this high technology era where practically everything is computerised. If you are afraid of new, just be sure you know the site which offers you computer science homework help.

By choosing computer science, you open up yourself to a plethora of opportunities such as the following:

Job opportunities

Practically all industries these days are utilising both hardware and software for the advancement of their businesses. Even the ones that are used at homes such as alarm systems and lighting devices make use of the internet. These home devices are controlled via the use of smartphones. If you have the knowledge and skills on how to connect, to troubleshoot, and to maintain these things, then it will be easier for you to get a job. Not to mention, that these positions are high-paying jobs.

Computer Languages are Useful Anywhere

The world is at your fingertips. By having a deep knowledge of computer languages, you can work anywhere you want to be. There are a lot of international work opportunities that await someone like you who is good with programming language.

Tech Internship Opportunities

Many companies prefer to hire workers who have some kind of job experience. What’s good about computer science is that you have the privilege to work as an intern in top companies in your area. Though you do not get paid for your services but what you get is a valuable experience and hands-on job in the line of work that you wish to do in the near future.

Those who have tech internship experience have a bigger chance of landing an awesome job.

Good Pay

Computer science jobs are very financially rewarding. In fact, based on an article in a US news, someone who works in the field of computer science earns $101,000.00 annually as a software developer, $139,000.00 as an IT Manager, and $67,000.00 as a web developer.

Good at Problem Solving

If you choose computer science as your course, you learn to be an analytical thinker. You will be trained on how to manage your emotions appropriately when you are faced with a difficult task to solve. In short, you become more objective than subjective which is an important trait when it comes to managing decisions in various aspects of life.

Tutorial Job Opportunities

Who would resist the chance to work at home and get paid well? That is one of the opportunities that you open yourself into if you will take-up computer science as your college course. You can offer your services online to students and to those people who want to gain knowledge about computer science help online.

You can do this either as a full-time or a part-time job.

Study Online

Are you worried that you do not have the time to go to school study? No worries, the computer science course allows you to study and finish your course at the comfort of your home or perhaps anywhere you are in the world.

All you need is a strong internet connection. You manage your own time. You decide when it is convenient for you to study. The only important thing to consider is to submit all the requirements on time. Otherwise, you are the master of your own time.

Collaboration with Others

These days, you can learn more knowledge through collaboration. In fact, if you are the shy type, you may even find it rewarding because you learn even if you do not see the other person. You can ask queries, get enlightenment through emails, and other forms of online messaging.

It can be a two-way stream, too! You get ideas from others while you also share with them what you know about the language of the computer. Such is the beauty of collaboration online.

Increase Creativity

As you advance in the course of computer science, you eventually learn how to break codes and at the same time, learn how to create new codes. Coding encourages students to be creative meticulous because creating codes demand precision and accuracy.


Immense Research Opportunities

As you learn how algorithms function, you open yourself to vast knowledge. Not everyone is knowledgeable about algorithms and this limits their research opportunities. The computer world is very rich in information, unfortunately, not everyone knows how to access this information.

But if you choose computer science as your course, you are lucky because you will discover how to unlock all those opportunities to learn new and more things around you.

There is no doubt that technology is becoming more sophisticated. Learning more about computer science is a step that students can take to see the world and what it has to offer to them.

Spread the love

The Stages Of An Online Purchase And How To Improve The Customer Experience

The shopping experience is one of the most important factors to take into account when we study and delve into an online purchasing process.

A purchase process is all those phases that the consumer or customer of a product goes through from the moment they have a need until they are happy to purchase a product or service that meets their needs to the utmost satisfaction.

In this article, we will take a walk through the different stages of an online purchase and we will see what added value you can give the consumer to optimize them.

1. The importance of the shopping experience

A pleasant, safe, and comfortable online shopping experience is the key to encouraging the customer to buy again in your store. It is increasingly difficult to differentiate yourself from your competitors and an original and effective way to do it is by focusing on the service you are giving to your client. Every day it is more personalized and they look for different ways to surprise the public.

2. Stages of the online purchase decision process

The stages of the online purchasing process that a customer takes into account from the moment a need arises until it is covered are the following:

  • Realize that you need it.
  • Do your research to find out how to meet that need.
  • Decide which option to choose from those found.
  • Buy the chosen option.

3. Phases that will improve the online shopping experience for your customer

The online shopping phases that we have to take into account so that the shopping experience is ideal are:

3.1) An attractive home page

The home page of your online store is the first impression that a user has of your brand and of what you sell. Try to give a good image with the help of large and attractive banners, always in accordance with the style or design of your online store.

In them, you can offer the products you have in a promotion or show a special category. Adapt your home page according to the season of the year or if it is a special day such as Valentine’s, Christmas or summer.

The personalization to your customer is a key element to improve the online shopping experience. Every time you can know more about the client through a good client management tool (CRM) and social networks. This allows you to know their tastes, what they are looking for in your store and what environment interests them.

It allows you to adapt your experience Marketing strategy to your client in a personalized way. So if you see that your client publishes photographs of mountain excursions on social networks, offer him a product related to nature that may be useful to him.

Don’t forget to congratulate him on his birthday or anniversary with the company and offer him a discount as a gift. You can present these actions on your home page or create an emailing campaign.

If you don’t have a customer service phone number, you should have the option to send a message to answer questions. Even if you are quick to answer emails, the client does not know when he will receive a response from you and that creates a feeling of unease and impatience. The client always looks for an immediate answer .

So I recommend offering personalized treatment through the integration of a chat in your online store to create a more enjoyable and effective online shopping experience. In this way, you will be able to answer their questions in real-time and show that you are always available to the customer.

3.2) A professional product sheet

I imagine that you have been told a thousand times how to present a product sheet: use large images with a white background and high quality, make known all the characteristics of your product, use cross-selling or up-selling techniques, etc.

An added value that you can bring to your product file is the testimony of the online shopping experience of other consumers.

The stars as a method of evaluation of your product is already quite seen, although it is still as effective as at the beginning. Let users leave comments and opinions about your product .

Marketing is a thousand times more effective than you can do. It is also very important to add buttons for social networks, for example, to “like” your store on Instagram or to tweet the product.

This content will be published in the stories and profiles of the users, it will be visible to the entire network of friends. They will be sharing the online shopping experience with their friends. Again, a friend’s opinion is worth a thousand times more than yours.

3.3) A secure payment

More and more people are daring to buy online, although there are still people who do not take this step by giving information about their bank account or credit card. Use trusted and secure payment stamps to create a reliable online shopping experience.

Add these stamp icons to checkout pages to inspire confidence in your customers. These are some of the stamps that you can integrate:

The more forms of payment you offer, the more options the customer has to have an online shopping experience adapted to their preferences. The different forms of payment that you can present in your store are: bank transfer, credit card, Paypal or cash on delivery.

Although the latter is a bit risky because the customer can return the product without paying the shipping. 

It is also important to add a section on secure payment and payment methods in the “General conditions” of your online store. In this way, the client always has access to this type of information and you inspire tranquility to the user.

3.4) A pleasant shipment

The shipping phase is the one that will unquestionably decide whether it has been a successful or disastrous online shopping experience. The desire to have the product at home quickly is very high which may not always be fulfilled.

So I propose to focus on other aspects that you can really control and improve to impress your client. The presentation of the package that the customer receives is the first direct contact that the consumer has with your product.

Take advantage of packaging techniques to excite your customer. Invest in a tissue paper that wraps the product in a funny way and in a nice box with a bow, it will be a little more expensive, but it is very nice to receive a package of these characteristics, so they will probably repeat the shopping experience online in your online store.

Many times problems arise in this phase of the purchase and most of the time it does not depend on you. Whatever happens, don’t forget to communicate with your client and inform them. If the package is late, send them an apology message and let them know how late it will be.

If the package or product arrives in bad condition, send him another one (don’t wait for him to return it) and add a gift for the inconvenience. It is inevitable that these things will happen, but you can fix them and surprise your client even more.

3.5) A simple return

A return doesn’t have to be a bad thing. Sometimes it is not the size we need and we have to return the product. To end good online shopping experience, clearly define the steps to take to return a product.

Don’t use complicated words and add a link to create the shipping label. Although if you prefer, you can send the label inside the package so that he only has to fill it out and send it.

If you can afford it, I advise you to return shipping free. It is a way of worrying about the customer getting the ideal product. Although you also have the option to offer free shipping only when the products are defective and not when it is a size problem.

Always remember to write everything down in the “Return Policies”. Many times it is a hassle to wait at home for the courier to come to take the package. In this case, the customer can go to the collection points and Click & Collect that allow you to both collect and send packages.

It is always advisable to offer different options so that the customer can choose the one that best suits them and optimize their online shopping experience.

You have already seen that not many resources are needed to improve the online shopping experience in your store. Be attentive to your client, inform him whenever necessary, keep him excited and satisfied with his purchase, and never forget your relationship, because it is a very special relationship. 

Spread the love

Tips to Optimise Your PC Performance

Our computer systems can be compared to the cars that we drive, they must be maintained and on a regular basis in order to ensure that they run optimally. Over time, it’s common for our systems to accumulate a considerable number of unneeded/unused files, applications, and tools, these programs may have been picked up from the internet or they may be something you installed many months or even years ago. All of these things over time have a negative effect on the performance of our computers. However, the good thing is that there are a number of things that you can do to restore the health of your system.

How to Improve PC Performance

Here are a number of tips that you should follow in order to enhance the performance of your computer:

Check for Computer Spyware, Viruses and Malware

Malware or Spyware are small malicious programs that are designed to do harm to your system, they are just as capable of causing harm to your system as your standard virus is. These small programs are able to get onto your computer without your knowledge and cause a great deal of damage. The general purpose of your average spyware program is to spy on whatever the computer user does on the system, sending all of the data that it’s logged back to the creator of the spyware, who typically are fraudsters and hackers out to steal the personal information of your average computer users. The information that they are able to obtain, can be anything from credit card details to username and passwords, typically anything of real value to you.

Although malware and spyware can be used interchangeably, malware is somewhat different in that they tend to be a lot more disruptive to your computer. Spyware is typically unable to act on itself, whereas the moment malware gets on your computer, it immediately goes to work. Malware is capable of completely crippling your system, one very familiar malware that people tend to get is the redirect virus, which basically redirects all your search engine traffic to malicious websites, that are usually laced with viruses. Thus, it’s in your best interest to ensure that neither spyware nor malware gets onto your system; this can be done by running a full scan of any antivirus program you have installed on your computer.

Another side effect of spyware is the toll that it’s able to take on the performance of your computer. It’s also capable of prohibiting you from running certain programs, effectively barring you from doing anything constructive on it; this is usually done while it’s destroying the integrity of your operating system. Therefore, you should also run a spyware remover in addition to the antivirus scan, just to ensure your computer is completely cleaned.

Defrag Your Hard Drive

Hard drive maintenance is something that the average user really things about. The vast majority of computer users typically do not take the time to either maintain or clean their hard drives, however when their operating system starts to act up, they ironically get really angry. Defragging a hard drive has become the conventional solution to fixing sluggish or slow systems, so it’s notwithstanding that it’s typically one’s first recommendation. Hard drives become fragmented as a result of all the files being written to it and erased over time; it’s a process that leads to the hard drive slowly deteriorating in performance.

Whenever you install a new program on a hard drive, portions of the hard drive allocated for it. Over time, as you uninstall programs, and put new ones on, free allocated units begin to spring up all over the hard drive. This leads to data being spread across the entire drive, resulting in the hard drive having to do more work in order to access data for specific programs.

This process of defragmentation has a negative effect on the writing speed of the hard drive, but it also has a negative effect on the actual components of the drive, essentially decreasing the drive life. Fragmentation is a process that cannot be avoided; however, newer hard drives are designed to reduce its effects. Using a storage capacity hard drive is one of the most effective ways to avoid having data being spread across the entire drive. If you ensure that at least 30% of the hard drive is made up of free space, then you can be sure that whenever you assign new data to the drive, it will be stored sequentially. Newer hard drives also have much larger buffers, which helps speed up the reading and writing process.

There are a number of different programs that you can use to defrag your hard drive, however, for the sake of simplicity; I recommend you use the built-in Windows Disk Defragmenter, which you can find in System Tools.

Repair Your Registry

If you don’t know what the registry is, it’s basically an area of the computer where all the configuration settings data is stored. However, over time, as you install more and more programs, it can become corrupted. The registry is also prone to containing data that is no longer of any use, like the settings of a program that you have already uninstalled. When you scan and repair the registry, you’re essentially ironing out all of these issues, which all ultimately affect the performance of your computer.

Remove Unnecessary Programs from Startup

If during the boot-up phase, you have a tone of programs loading up at the same time, then you’ll be made to wait a considerable length of time before your system becomes accessible to you. However, the workaround would be to switch off those programs which you feel, quite frankly have no business loading up during boot up. You can do this by running Microsoft Configuration Utility and uncheck the services that you think your computer can do without.

Free Up Hard Drive Space

Today, hard drives are available in considerably large storage capacities, with purchasing a new hard drive for your computer becoming a more cost-effective approach, as each day passes, but despite all of that, your hard drive will still eventually vanish. If you like to surf the internet, visiting the lost of web pages and downloading and installing applications, then a lot of temporary files will be stored in your internet temp folder, and in some cases, it may prove difficult for you to remove them. Having to think about which files you should delete and which ones you should keep, can prove to be quite a strenuous tasks, as a result, I put together a number of methods that you can use to free up hard drive space.

1. Use Windows Disk Cleanup

If you use a Windows-based operating system, then go to My Computer, access the Properties of your hard drive and click on Disk Cleanup. Once the application has loaded up, it will give you a list of all the files that you can delete in order to conserve hard drive space. Just select the file types that you know you do not need, then click on OK, once you’ve done that, the operating system will ask you to confirm your choice.

This is a process that you should carry out for all the hard drives in your computer. Another way to access this tool is from System Tools.

2. Empty Your Recycle Bin

Make sure that you’ve emptied your recycle bin that no files exist in it. After you’ve emptied your recycle bin, it may also be a good idea for you to defragment your hard drive. This can be done by using Windows Disk Defragmenter, found in system tools.

3. Uninstall Unneeded Applications

To do this, you will have to access Add/Remove Programs, which can be found in your control panel. Once you’ve loaded the applet up, simply scroll through the list of applications on your computer, programs such as browser add-ons and toolbars are not really needed, so you can delete them. This activity will not only help you free up hard drive space, but it should also help you increase the performance of your computer.

4. Empty Your Temporary Internet Folder

All the browsers you can use today are built around the same architecture, they all use temporary folders. So the objective is for you to do one or two things, either you can configure the internet browser to automatically erase the contents of the folder on a given day or when it reaches a certain file size. Or you can opt to delete the contents of this folder manually. Ideally, you’d want to set it so it’s done automatically, but assuming you haven’t already done that, you should load up your browser and empty all your browsing data.

5. Remove Unused Windows Components

It’s possible for you to add and remove windows components that you no longer use. This can be done by loading up Add/Remove Programs, which you can find in the control panel. From here, you can opt to remove components such as the Games folder or certain Internet Self Hosting components that you either do not need or have never used. This is a nice little way of freeing up some space and ultimately enhancing the performance of your computer.

Automatic Software Updates

There are tons of applications out there like Microsoft Office that have updates for it released on a regular basis. This also includes updates for your operating system. By installing these updates it will not only increase the security of your computer, but it will also enhance its performance.

Other Products & Methods

Purchase Additional Products

There are also various additional products that you could consider, like adapters and USB hubs, which are capable of speeding up your computer. These kinds of devices are designed to ensure that you get the most out of any external device that you decide to add to your computer, so that’s definitely something that you should consider.

Plug Your Laptop In

If you’re using a laptop computer, then one thing you should be aware of is that when it’s not plugged in, the device uses less power. So one method that you can use to gain a little more speed out of your laptop computer is to plug it into the mains, where possible.

Upgrade Your Memory

If you purchased your computer brand new from the shop, then it’s likely that it will have some free slots for additional memory expansion. Thus, you should consider adding more RAM to it. Adding memory is a sure-fire way of increasing the performance of your system, whether it’s for gaming or running standard applications.

Dust Your System

One thing you’ll want to do is ensure that your computer is regularly cleaned. If too much dust builds up inside your computer, it can have a detrimental effect on the performance of the components. To dust the computer, you can use either a small vacuum cleaner or compressed air.

Check Cable Connections

Sometimes a loose connection can result in degraded system performance. Thus, it’s important that you check all your cable connections to ensure that they are securely in their slots. You may also want to check your internet connection, just to be sure that things are running as they should.


This post is contributed by Uchenna Ani-Okoye
He  is a former IT Manager who now runs his own computer support website

Spread the love

PHP Code Online

PHP is a server-side scripting language used by millions of users worldwide. Full-Form of PHP is HyperText PreProgramming. The secret behind the popularity of PHP is simplicity and being Open Source. PHP has the biggest community over the world to support and share.

PHP has numerous Frameworks and CMS along with eCommerce that make it considerable. Developers need to write and debug some piece of code regularly and without saving them in a file and then run by the server in a local machine or on the server.

There are many such places available where we can run our chunk of PHP Code or a complete PHP Program and without saving it in any file.

These websites provide online PHP editor to write code and to execute PHP Code online. These are the Online Compiler and Interpreter providers helping the coders.

You just need to type your code and click on the run button without any mess and you will get the output of the program.

There are numbers of Online PHP editor where we can run or PHP Code and PHP Program:

Write Php Online

This is the best place where you can use PHP editor and can run your PHP code and PHP Program Online. You will find a very simple interface and a white background code editor to write PHP Code. You don’t need to save your PHP Program. There is a run button just below the PHP Editor once you will finish your PHP Code just click run and you will have your output. It is a very quick interpreter and loved by almost the PHP Developers.


Online PHP IDE

Joodle is the IDE provider. It provides the API to embedded IDE for almost the programming languages in any HTML page. You can use its interface to write PHP Code and get instant output. This PHP Editor is featured with Full Screen Editing Mode, User Input Console, Memory and Time analytics of the program.


Geeks For Geeks IDE

This is one where you can save your code for a longer time. This saves your content in your storage or in the browser. Whenever you will be back you will find your last PHP programs. This PHP Editor Provides tabs for many other programming languages you can just click and switch between the languages. GFG IDE provides two modes of the editor – Dark Mode or Night Mode and Light Mode.


This is a separate subdomain of Geeks Fo Geeks dedicated to IDEs for different languages.

PHP Tester

PHP Tester is a dedicated IDE for PHP and lets you write PHP Code and Run PHP code online. This provides you the facility to test your PHP code and get instant Result Online. You can also switch between the versions of PHP in this PHP Editor. You can easily check where a code is compatible with different types of PHP versions or not.


Interview Sort out

Interview Sortout also provides you a PHP Editor and Interpreter powered by Joodle. We have used a dark PHP Editor theme, that is loved by almost the programmers. You can run your PHP programs here without any server and without saving it to any file. This tool provides you with highlighted syntax and output with time and memory usage.


Spread the love

Python Interview Questions

Python is an interpreted, high-level, general-purpose programming language. Created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991, Python’s design philosophy emphasizes code readability with its notable use of significant whitespace. 

Nowadays the popularity of python is increasing day by day. Python is easy to learn and has vast libraries. In the field of Machine Learning, Deep Learning and Artificial Intelligence Python are the top priority in the implementation tool.  You can find on google the trends of top programming languages.

Since the demand and popularity are on top, so the career opportunity in Python programming and related fields is high. Keeping this in mind we have created a set of some useful Python Interview Questions and Answers, so that one may find a proper guide for an Interview. 

Python Interview Questions are very useful when you are going for an Interview for the designation of Python Developer or Machine Learning or any Related fields to Python. These python interview questions and answers are equally useful for freshers and experienced.

While representing this set of questions along with answers we hope that they will be useful for visitors.

What is Python?

Python is an Interpreted programming language with objects, modules, threads, exceptions and automatic memory management. The benefits of pythons are that it is simple and easy, portable, extensible, built-in data structure and it is open-source.

What are the key features of Python?

  • Python is an interpreted language. That means Python does not need to be compiled before it is run. 
  • Python is dynamically typed, this means that you don’t need to state the types of variables when you declare them or anything like that. 
  • Python is well suited to object-orientated programming in that it allows the definition of classes along with composition and inheritance. 
  • In Python, functions are first-class objects. This means that they can be assigned to variables, returned from other functions and passed into functions. Classes are also first-class objects
  • Writing Python code is quick but running it is often slower than compiled languages. Fortunately,Python allows the inclusion of C based extensions so bottlenecks can be optimized away and often are. 

What type of language is python? Programming or scripting?

Python is capable of scripting, but in a general sense, it is considered as a general-purpose programming language.

What is PEP 8?

PEP 8 is a coding convention, a set of recommendations about how to write your Python code more readable.

What are Python packages?

Python packages are namespaces containing multiple modules.

What is the difference between abs () and fabs ()?

abs() is a built-in function that works with integer, float and complex numbers also.

fabs() is defined in the math module which doesn’t work with complex numbers.

How Python is interpreted?

Python is an interpreted language because Python program runs directly from the source code. It converts the source code that is written by the programmer into an intermediate language, which is again translated into machine language that has to be executed.

How memory is managed in Python?

Python has an awesome feature of memory management. The following points will explain memory management in python:

  • Python memory is managed by Python private heap space. All Python objects and data structures are located in a private heap. The programmer does not have access to this private heap and the interpreter takes care of this Python private heap.
  • The allocation of Python heap space for Python objects is done by the Python memory manager. The core API gives access to some tools for the programmer to code.
  • Python also has an inbuilt garbage collector, which recycles all the unused memory and frees the memory and makes it available to the heap space.


What are the tools that help to find bugs or perform the static analysis?

PyChecker is a static analysis tool that detects bugs in Python source code and warns about the style and complexity of the bug. Pylint is another tool that verifies whether the module meets the coding standard.


What are Python decorators?

A Python decorator is a specific change that we make in Python syntax to alter functions easily.


What is the difference between list and tuple?

The difference between list and tuple is that the list is mutable while tuple is not. Tuple can be hashed for e.g as a key for dictionaries.


How are arguments passed by value or by reference?

Everything in Python is an object and all variables hold references to the objects. The reference values are according to the functions; as a result, you cannot change the value of the references. However, you can change the objects if it is mutable.


What is Dict and List comprehensions are?

They are syntax constructions to ease the creation of a Dictionary or List based on existing iterable.


What is the built-in type does python provides?

There are mutable and Immutable types of Pythons built-in types Mutable built-in types

  • List
  • Sets
  • Dictionaries

Immutable built-in types

  • Strings
  • Tuples
  • Numbers


What is namespace in Python?

In Python, every name introduced has a place where it lives and can be hooked for. This is known as a namespace. It is like a box where a variable name is mapped to the object placed. Whenever the variable is searched out, this box will be searched, to get the corresponding object.


What is the difference between deep and shallow copy?

Shallow copy is used when a new instance type gets created and it keeps the values that are copied in the new instance. Shallow copy is used to copy the reference pointers just like it copies the values. These references point to the original objects and the changes made in any member of the class will also affect the original copy of it. Shallow copy allows faster execution of the program and it depends on the size of the data that is used.

A deep copy is used to store the values that are already copied. The deep copy doesn’t copy the reference pointers to the objects. It makes the reference to an object and the new object that is pointed by some other object gets stored. The changes made in the original copy won’t affect any other copy that uses the object. Deep copy makes execution of the program slower due to making certain copies for each object that is been called.


What is lambda in Python?

It is a single expression anonymous function often used as an inline function.


Why lambda forms in python does not have statements?

A lambda form in python does not have statements as it is used to make a new function object and then return them at runtime.


Does python support multiple inheritances?

Multiple inheritances mean that a class can be derived from more than one parent class. Python does support multiple inheritances, unlike Java.


What is a pass in Python?

Pass means, no-operation Python statement, or in other words, it is a place holder in a compound statement, where there should be a blank left and nothing has to be written there.


What is Polymorphism in Python?

Polymorphism means the ability to take multiple forms. So, for instance, if the parent class has a method named ABC then the child class also can have a method with the same name ABC having its own parameters and variables. Python allows polymorphism.


What is encapsulation in Python?

Encapsulation means binding the code and the data together. A Python class is an example of encapsulation.


How do you do data abstraction in Python?

Data Abstraction is providing only the required details and hiding the implementation from the world. It can be achieved in Python by using interfaces and abstract classes.


How to use access specifiers?

Python does not deprive access to an instance variable or function. Python lays down the concept of prefixing the name of the variable, function or method with a single or double underscore to imitate the behavior of protected and private access specifiers.  


In Python what are iterators?

In Python, iterators are used to iterate a group of elements, containers like a list.


What is the unit test in Python?

A unit testing framework in Python is known as a unit test. It supports the sharing of setups, automation testing, shutdown code for tests, aggregation of tests into collections, etc.


Explain what Flask is and its benefits?

Flask is a web microframework for Python based on “Werkzeug, Jinja2 and good intentions” BSD license. Werkzeug and Jinja2 are two of its dependencies. This means it will have little to no dependencies on external libraries.  It makes the framework light while there is a little dependency to update and fewer security bugs.

A session basically allows you to remember information from one request to another. In a flask, a session uses a signed cookie so the user can look at the session contents and modify it. The user can modify the session if only it has the secret key Flask.secret_key.


In Python what is slicing?

A mechanism to select a range of items from sequence types like list, tuple, strings, etc. is known as slicing.


What are the generators in Python?

The way of implementing iterators are known as generators. It is a normal function except that it yields expression in the function.



It is an environment variable that is used when a module is imported. Whenever a module is imported, PYTHONPATH is also looked up to check for the presence of the imported modules in various directories. The interpreter uses it to determine which module to load.


What is type conversion in Python?

Type conversion refers to the conversion of one data type into another.

int() : converts any data type into integer type

float() : converts any data type into float type

ord() : converts characters into integer

hex() : converts integers to hexadecimal

oct() : converts integer to octal

tuple() : This function is used to convert to a tuple.

set() : This function returns the type after converting to set.

list() : This function is used to convert any data type to a list type.

dict() : This function is used to convert a tuple of order (key,value) into a dictionary.

str() : Used to convert integer into a string.


What is docstring in Python?

A Python documentation string is known as docstring, it is a way of documenting Python functions, modules and classes.


How can you copy an object in Python?

To copy an object in Python, you can try copy.copy () or copy.deepcopy() for the general case. You cannot copy all objects but most of them.


What is a negative index in Python?

Python sequences can be index in positive and negative numbers. For positive index, 0 is the first index, 1 is the second index and so forth. For negative index, (-1) is the last index and (-2) is the second last index and so forth.


How you can convert a number to a string?

In order to convert a number into a string, use the inbuilt function str(). If you want an octal or hexadecimal representation, use the inbuilt function oct() or hex().


What is the difference between Xrange and range?

Xrange returns the xrange object while range returns the list, and uses the same memory and no matter what the range size is.


Mention the differences between Django, Pyramid, and Flask.

  • Flask is a “microframework” primarily build for a small application with simpler requirements. In a flask, you have to use external libraries. Flask is ready to use.
  • Pyramid is built for larger applications. It provides flexibility and lets the developer use the right tools for their project. The developer can choose the database, URL structure, templating style and more. Pyramid is heavy configurable.
  • Django can also be used for larger applications just like Pyramid. It includes an ORM.


What is module and package in Python?

In Python, module is the way to structure program. Each Python program file is a module, which imports other modules like objects and attributes.

The folder of Python program is a package of modules. A package can have modules or subfolders.


Why indentation required in python?

Indentation is necessary for Python. It specifies a block of code. All code within loops, classes, functions, etc is specified within an indented block. It is usually done using four space characters. If your code is not indented necessarily, it will not execute accurately and will throw errors as well.


Mention what are the rules for local and global variables in Python?

Local variables: If a variable is assigned a new value anywhere within the function’s body, it’s assumed to be local.

Global variables: Those variables that are only referenced inside a function are implicitly global.

List out the inheritance styles in Django.

In Django, there are three possible inheritance styles:

  1. Abstract Base Classes: This style is used when you only want the parent’s class to hold information that you don’t want to type out for each child model.
  2. Multi-table Inheritance: This style is used If you are sub-classing an existing model and need each model to have its own database table.
  3. Proxy models: You can use this model, If you only want to modify the Python level behavior of the model, without changing the model’s fields.


Why are local variable names beginning with an underscore discouraged?

  • they are used to indicate a private variables of a class
  • they confuse the interpreter
  • they are used to indicate global variables
  • they slow down execution


What is the purpose of the PYTHONCASEOK environment variable?

PYTHONCASEOK − It is used in Windows to instruct Python to find the first case-insensitive match in an import statement. Set this variable to any value to activate it.


Explain how can you make a Python Script executable on Unix?

To make a Python Script executable on Unix, you need to do two things,

  • Script file’s mode must be executable and
  • the first line must begin with # ( #!/usr/local/bin/python)

How can you share global variables across modules?

To share global variables across modules within a single program, create a special module. Import the config module in all modules of your application. The module will be available as a global variable across modules.


What are the supported data types in Python?

Python has five standard data types −

  • Numbers
  • String
  • List
  • Tuple
  • Dictionary


Explain how to delete a file in Python?

By using a command os.remove (filename) or os.unlink(filename)


Explain how you can generate random numbers in Python?

To generate random numbers in Python, you need to import command as

import random


This returns a random floating-point number in the range [0,1)


What is self in Python?


Self is an instance of an object of a class. In Python, this is explicitly included as the first parameter. However, this is not the case in Java where it’s optional.  It helps to differentiate between the methods and attributes of a class with local variables.

The self variable in the init method refers to the newly created object while in other methods, it refers to the object whose method was called.


What are tuples in Python?

A tuple is another sequence data type that is similar to the list. A tuple consists of a number of values separated by commas. Unlike lists, however, tuples are enclosed within parentheses.


How will you check if all characters in a string are alphanumeric?

We will use the method isalnum().


Does Python allow you to program in a structured style?

Yes. It does allow to code is structured as well as Object-oriented style. It offers excellent flexibility to design and implement your application code depending on the requirements of your application.


Explain how can you access a module written in Python from C?

You can access a module written in Python from C by following method,

Module = =PyImport_ImportModule(“<modulename>”);


Mention the use of // operator in Python?

It is a Floor Divisionoperator, which is used for dividing two operands with the result as quotient showing only digits before the decimal point. For instance, 10//5 = 2 and 10.0//5.0 = 2.0.


Mention five benefits of using Python?

  • Python comprises of a huge standard library for most Internet platforms like Email, HTML, etc.
  • Python does not require explicit memory management as the interpreter itself allocates the memory to new variables and free them automatically
  • Provide easy readability due to use of square brackets
  • Easy-to-learn for beginners

What is module and package in Python?

In Python, module is the way to structure program. Each Python program file is a module, which imports other modules like objects and attributes.

The folder of the Python program is a package of modules. A package can have modules or subfolders.


What is difference between pickling and unpickling?

Pickle module accepts any Python object and converts it into a string representation and dumps it into a file by using a dump function, this process is called pickling. While the process of retrieving original Python objects from the stored string representation is called unpickling.

  • Having the built-in data types saves programming time and effort from declaring variables


What is a dictionary in Python?

Ans: The built-in data types in Python are called the dictionary. It defines one-to-one relationships between keys and values. Dictionaries contain a pair of keys and their corresponding values. Dictionaries are indexed by keys.


Mention the use of the split function in Python?

The use of the split function in Python is that it breaks a string into shorter strings using the defined separator. It gives a list of all the words present in the string.


What tools can be used to unit test your Python code?

The best and easiest way is to use ‘unittest’ python standard library to test units/classes. The features supported are very similar to the other unit testing tools such as JUnit, TestNG.


What is the starting point of Python code execution?

As Python is an interpreter, it starts reading the code from the source file and starts executing them.


Explain what is Flask & its benefits?

Flask is a web microframework for Python based on “Werkzeug, Jinja 2 and good intentions” BSD licensed. Werkzeug and jinja are two of its dependencies.

Flask is part of the micro-framework. Which means it will have little to no dependencies on external libraries. It makes the framework light while there is a little dependency to update and fewer security bugs.


Mention what is the difference between Django, Pyramid, and Flask?

Flask is a “microframework” primarily build for a small application with simpler requirements. In flask, you have to use external libraries. Flask is ready to use.

The pyramid is built for larger applications. It provides flexibility and lets the developer use the right tools for their project. The developer can choose the database, URL structure, templating style and more. The pyramid is heavily configurable.

Like Pyramid, Django can also used for larger applications. It includes an ORM.


How to comment on multiple lines in python?

Multi-line comments appear in more than one line. All the lines to be commented are to be prefixed by a #. You can also a very good shortcut method to comment on multiple lines. All you need to do is hold the ctrl key and left-click in every place wherever you want to include a # character and type a # just once. This will comment on all the lines where you introduced your cursor.


Which module(s) of Python can be used to measure the performance of your application code?

Time module can be used to calculate the time at different stages of your application and use the Logging module to log data to a file system in any preferred format.


Mention what is Flask-WTF and what are their features?

Flask-WTF offers simple integration with WTForms. Features include for Flask WTF are

  • Integration with wtforms
  • Secure form with csrf token
  • Global csrf protection
  • Internationalization integration
  • Recaptcha supporting
  • File upload that works with Flask Uploads


Does the same Python code work on multiple platforms without any changes?

As long as you have the Python environment on your target platform (Linux, Windows, Mac), you can run the same code.

How do you make use of Arrays in Python?

Python does not support Arrays. However, you can use List collection type which can store an unlimited number of elements.

Explain what is the common way for the Flask script to work?

The common way for the flask script to work is

  • Either it should be the import path for your application
  • Or the path to a Python file


What are the different environment variables identified by Python?

PYTHONPATH: This environment variable helps the interpreter as to where to locate the module files imported in the program.

PYTHONSTARTUP: This environment variable contains the path of the Initialization file containing the source code.

PYTHONCASEOK: This variable is used to find the first case-insensitive match in the import statement


Explain how you can access sessions in Flask?

A session basically allows you to remember information from one request to another. In a flask, it uses a signed cookie so the user can look at the session contents and modify them. The user can modify the session if only it has the secret key Flask.secret_key.


What are a help () and dir() in python?

help() is a built-in function that can be used to return the Python documentation of a particular object, methods, attributes, etc.

dir() displays a list of attributes for the objects which are passed as an argument. If dir() is without the argument then it returns a list of names in current local space.


What is the difference between locals() and globals ()?

locals() is accessed within the function and it returns all names that can be accessed locally from that function.


Spread the love