Category Archives: Web Development

Articles and Interview Questions,Tips related to Web Development – Interview Sortout

Latest trends in Laravel Development in 2021

Laravel is a PHP-based application scheme that is used for web development purposes. These are commonly used by many people as they have various added features like a fast-evolving mechanism. This is used to create modular web applications with higher levels of security.

It is very comprehensive, user-friendly, and easy to learn and to comprehend by people. It also allows web applications to be created with a wide number of features, from the basic to the highest level of performance levels.

In addition to the simplicity it upholds, the encoding experience also follows up to performance levels that are errorless and they make use of the Laravel framework or the Top laravel development company.

There are some key trends that have been adopted by Laravel Development. These comprise the database usage, cloud storage features, or database handling. This can be done by Laravel for its application development process. It also offers features that will help one to develop attractive and simple web applications.

The following are the key trends, they are the use of the Model – View – Controller (MVC), trustworthiness, innovative features, safety and security, object based library, base for startup, enhancing PHP and the future prospects of PHP, Laravel and IoT. 

MVC (Model – View – Controller)

Laravel makes complete use of the Model – View – Controller system, which is useful for both the designers and creators. Furthermore, the MVC is used by Laravel which assists in understanding the business logic and also the user interface code that is also useful for this feature.


This is another feature that allows Laravel to be widely accepted and used by the world. This helps to create and develop various websites. This helps in the process of the acceptance and makes this platform a much trusted source for the various developers. This is also very fast, efficient and it is secure. This attracts the attention of many people. This is also very dependable. 

Innovative Features

This allows the market to offer various types of the PHP frameworks that also give a very tough competition to its competitors. In order to remain highly competitive in the market. People have to opt for various innovative features overtime. Furthermore, Laravel is continuously added for its new features and allows other competitors to make use of these. 

Safety and Security

This is another important feature of Laravel framework. This ensures the users are protected well against these cyber crimes. This helps to keep them in good hands. This also ensures that the security features are well incorporated to these platforms.

As the number of cyber crimes are continuously increasing, there is a need for people to safeguard their website from these attacks. This will keep them under protected and secure measures. Furthermore, Laravel aims to provide its users a safe and secure networking system.

Object based library

This is a feature that is followed by many. This allows them to develop the respective framework. This makes use of the pre-installed Laravel library. This also makes use of the support from the large amount of data.

This also makes use of the processing to be done easily. This also comprises the information verifying system. This is of great use to its users. 

Base for Startups

Start ups are a growing field and many people are stepping forward to engage in startups. Laravel is not only a platform that supports the established organisations.

This also makes use of the various framework systems to establish and create a new startup scheme. This allows Laravel to handle large amounts of data that is well protected.

Furthermore, they can also reach out to the various other markets much more easily. This helps to reduce a lot of time wastage from taking place. This also allows for the smooth functioning of the applications. 

Enhancing the Functioning of PHP

It is important to transform a digital world. However,this process can be very challenging and tedious for people to follow. This is mainly due to the organizations which have an aim to gain users and their interest.

This increases their engagement levels. This then leaves room for continuous  improvement in web application creation. Hence in order to lead the market, individuals are trying to provide the best. Hence in the future, PHP is used to save the rapid execution process for the various codes and memory utilization.

This helps to make full use of Laravel as it is the most well-known and trendy framework across PHP.

Future uses of PHP, Laravel, and IoT

This allows the combination of all these networks. This then helps to develop a system which is closely tied and works well together by the collaborative measures.

This also helps to create new applications that are very useful and in building an application that is very clear in their goals and in the process of development. There are many best laravel development companies that are found hence people can seek their help. 

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8 Things a Visual Basic Developer Should Learn

If you are a computer science graduate who wants to become a software engineer or a software developer, you might come across the programming language Visual Basic. If you want to become a Visual Basic Developer there are some technical things you should learn to become a good programmer. 

While the technology has advanced far there are so many platforms, tools and languages coming out in the market. It doesn’t matter whether you’re a newbie programmer or an experienced, as a program developer you should have the knowledge on how to integrate the modern technologies and other technical stuff into your work to make a good software or product. 

In this blog, we will discuss 8 things you should learn as a Visual Basic Developer. 

Basics of Visual Basic

The first and foremost thing you should learn about Visual Basic is that you need to develop an understanding of the basics of this language. While there is already a word “Basic” in the name Visual Basic, you ought to believe that it is a language for beginners. And, what really Visual Basics is, it is an object-oriented programming language designed by Microsoft. Although it is designed for the novices, the power of VB cannot be underestimated. 

Simple but Powerful Syntax

Many criticise VB.Net for the simplicity in syntax. But it has the ability to create sophisticated and powerful applications with these syntax. A beginner who can understand the language of computers should be able to pick up Visual Basic easily. If you’re a newbie computer programmer, is a great place to start. The syntax is easy and straight forward that you will not find yourself writing hundreds of lines of code. VB offers many shortcuts that it makes coding so much easier. 

Application Creating Components

Visual Basic is a third-generation event-driven programming language. Derived from BASIC, Visual Basic enables rapid application development (RAD) of graphical user interface (GUI) applications. Using the components provided by the Visual Basic program, you can create an application. Third-party components were developed over time by a community of programmers. Programs written in Visual Basic require external function declarations such as the Windows API.  

Versions of VB

There are over 10 revisions on Visual Basic versions starting with Project ‘basic Thunder’ in 1990 and it remained as the primary internal function of VB as “ThunderRTMain”. The final version 6 was released in 1998 which now simply known as Visual Basic. Microsoft stopped supporting Visual Basic 6.0 IDE on April 8, 2008. The compatibility for Visual Basic 6.0 applications on Windows Server 2008 including R2, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2016, Windows 10 and Windows Server 2019 are still maintained by Microsoft VB team. Some software developers still preferred Visual Basic 6.0 over its successor Visual Basic .NET in 2014, Visual Basic 6.0 won the technical impact award in 2016 at The 19th Annual D.I.C.E. Awards.

VB Applications (VBA)

In several Microsoft applications including Microsoft Office, VB Applications (VBA) is used as a macro or scripting language. Many third-party products such as WordPerfect Office 2002, AutoCAD, Sage 300 ERP, ArcGIS, Solid Works, and Business Objects Desktop Intelligence. Many inconsistencies were reported in the way VBA implemented in different applications. But it uses the same runtime library and is largely the same language as Visual Basic 6.0. Although development on Visual Basic ended with 6.0, in 2010 Microsoft introduced VBA 7 to provide extended features and add 64-bit support. 

VB on Demand

There are many US states that demand Visual Basic developers such as Arizona, Georgia, Florida, Kentucky, Delaware, Louisiana, Indiana and more to name. This is meant to help you understand VB is a programming language which is in demand. Therefore I recommend doing your own research and as well as searching in-depth for what is popular in your current city.

VB and Visual Basic .net

Visual Basic .net can be called as the successor of Visual Basic or a modern version of it. The Microsoft team developed this modern, simple, and object-oriented computer programming language to combine the power of .NET Framework. The hallmark of Visual Basic is combined with productivity benefits and a common language runtime. 

Get Training

Depending on how much time you spend on learning this language which is rather simple, it should take you a few months to become a competent programmer. If you feel you can’t do it all your own, get Visual Basic Training and start working on the more advanced details. In Visual Basic these advanced details include things like client/server programming, building ActiveX controls, database programming, the development environment itself (add-ins), the API, etc. 

Meanwhile, you can keep a watchful eye on program groups and forums. You will learn a lot by reading other peoples’ answers. You will also learn about new topics you may not have encountered before. When you see questions you can answer, do so. When you see something you think you can figure out, you may do it. Other people often ask questions you would not think to ask yourself. Tracking down the answers will teach you a lot.

These are the 8 things you need to learn in order to become a Visual Basic Developer. Still you are confused about whether the VB programming language is the right choice for your career? No need once you master all these, you will be an expert in Visual Basic. This may take one or more years depending on how much time you invest.

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Automation Testing Interview Questions

Are you a software geek preparing for an interview? Well, we wish you a hearty, ‘All the best!’ 

Nervous? About What? Automation testing! Here are some questions you need to prepare to ace an interview!  

Test automation has an essential role to play in the entire software development lifecycle.  

A lot of times when people prepare for an automation testing interview, they focus only on the automation tool-specific questions.

However, people should also consider the fact that learning and knowing about the automation tools is not the same as knowing about the automation testing and hence it’s not the ultimate goal. 

 Thus, whenever you are preparing for a ‘test automation’ interview, it is essential for you to consider ‘Automation’ as a whole and focus on its framework and all the steps involved. 


What are automation and automation testing? 

 Automation is any form of action that can help reduce human effort. 

Automation testing is of course, automated. This is completely different from manual testing as in manual testing, a human is responsible for testing the functionality of the software in the way a user would. 

Automation testing is a software testing method used to test and compare the expected outcomes with the actual outcomes. It is achieved by using automation tools or by writing test scripts. 

Automation testing is used to automate testing tasks that are difficult to perform manually like repetitive tasks. It requires far less time than manual testing due to the fact that automation testing is done with the help of an automation tool while humans perform manual testing. Less time is needed in exploratory tests and more time is needed in maintaining test scripts while increasing overall test coverage just like mystery rooms.


What are the tests that can be automated? 

Following are the things/tests that can be automated: 

  • Build deployment 
  • Test data creation 
  • Regression test suite 
  • Smoke / Sanity test suite 

Automating behind the graphical user interface like testing of APIs. 


Is test automation useful or not? 

Automation testing proves to be useful in the following scenarios: 

Non-functional Testing: Automation-testing is used to test the non-functional aspects of an application. 

For Example, Performance testing and load testing are very difficult tasks for humans to track and analyze. 

Regression Testing: Regression testing is done in case of a bug fix or new module implementation, then is important to make sure that the already implemented and unchanged functionality is not affected in any manner. In this case, the people end up running the regression test multiple times. 

For Example: After each change request or bug fix and after every iteration in the case of the incremental development approach. 

Repeated execution of the same tests: Sometimes, it is important to run the same set of test cases for a different set of data. Also, after each build release or on multiple hardware and software or a combination of hardware and software. 

Automating the test cases in the above scenarios helps in maximising the speed of testing and minimising human errors. 

Complex calculation: Automation testing in this case helps in checking or testing scenarios that are prone to human errors. 


 Is it possible to achieve 100% automation? 

100% automation is difficult to achieve because then there will be a lot of edge test cases and some cases that are not executed very often. Automating these test cases which are not executed very often will not be able to add value to the automated suite. 


How can we identify the test cases which are suitable for automation? 

The most important step towards automation testing is the identification of the most appropriate test cases for automation. 


How to decide the automation tool that one should use for their Automation testing in the projects? 

To identify the best tool for Automation testing for your project you need to do the following: 

  1. You need to understand your project requirements thoroughly and identify the testing scenarios that you want to automate. 
  2. Lookup and search for the list of tools that support your project’s requirements. 
  3. Plan out your budget for the automation tool. Then, choose the tools within your budget. 
  4. Be sure that you already have skilled resources for using the automation tools. If you don’t have the necessary skilled resources for using the automation tool then identify the cost for training the existing resources or hiring new resources for the work. 
  5. Compare each automation tool with the key criteria: 
  6. Once you have compared the best automation tools for your purpose, select the tool which is within your budget and supports your project requirement, and gives you more advantage based on the key criteria. 


What are the key criteria for automation testing tools? 


The key criterion for automation testing tools is as follows: 

Does the automation tool have test reporting functionality? If not, can it be easily configured to the tool? Is that automation tool suitable for cross-browser support for web-based applications? How many different testing types can the tool support? 

  • How many languages does this automation tool support? 
  • Is it easy to develop and maintain the scripts for the tool? 
  • Can a non-technical person also execute the test cases with some simple training? 

Is the tool able to support different types of platforms like web, mobile, desktop, and much more based on your project requirements? 


What is the next step after deciding the automation tool to use? 

Once the tool is finalised, the next step is to design the framework. 

What is the framework? 

A framework is a part of the structure of the entire automation suite. It is also a guideline, which when followed properly, can result in a structure that is easily maintained and enhanced. 

The guideline of the framework includes: 

  • Handling of environment files and properties file 
  • Reporting of data 
  • Handling logs 
  • Coding standards 
  • Handling the test data 
  • Maintaining and handling the elements (object repository in QTP) 


Final Words: 

The questions above are the main questions that are important for automation tools or programming language. Automation testing interviews also include tool and programming language-specific questions depending upon the tool that the people have worked with. 

Most of the test automation interview questions are centered on the framework that the person develops, so it is recommended that everyone creates and understands their test framework thoroughly. 

Have you gone through all the Q&A? Now, get ready and crack any software interview! 

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Why You Need a Responsive Layout for your Website

Now building mobile-friendly website doesn’t take too much time. Coding technology has changed a lot in the last couple of years, and it takes more or less similar time to build like a static site.

We can’t deny the fact that mobile search has gained momentum worldwide in the last couple of years. Keeping it in mind many small and mediocre business owners is preferred mobile-responsive for their business interest. That’s why most of the website development company are now focusing on building a responsive website.

In a survey reveals the fact that more than 80% of people prefer to search on mobile instead of a desktop. In 2020 your website must be responsive otherwise you can’t sustain in this fast changeable market.

Reasons Why a mobile-friendly Responsive Website Required in 2020

1. The mobile search index is now entirely in effect from 2015. You can see there is a different search result in mobile and desktop. Google prefers mobile users search results to Google Ads, Google Local Listing and organically to websites that are mobile-friendly.

2. Searching performed in mobile is higher than desktop. According to study, users are spending maximum time on mobile, and most of the time they buy something online from their smartphone.

So it’s quite natural from a business perspective that mobile-friendly user-interface attracts visitors more. Not only mobile friendly website users are inclined towards mobile app. Business owners are given priority to build a mobile app instead to make a website.

3. Since the easy accessibility of the internet, the demand of Smartphone arises drastically in the last 5-6 years. The survey shows that Smartphone users spend time on social media on an average of 4-5 hours daily.

It is essential for any businesses to be listed correctly at online and to have a quality web presence that caters user attention.

If your business is not showing in the first of SERP pages with specific keywords, means you are missing a potential business market.

More than 70% of mobile consumers expect a local business within 5 miles of residence when purchasing something.

The aim is to become top in search ranking page whenever a local user is searching for products and services you offer.

4. Still near about 60% website are not mobile-optimised.

Now the owner of the site realises the importance of it. Smart business owners already understand the essence of the internet and its capability to bring customers via organic search.

It’s the high time is the time for business who are looking for long-term success! Now user searching behaviour is also changing from organic search to voice search.

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Freelancer PHP Level 1 Exam Questions Answers is an open platform for the skilled person to get projects and jobs according to their expertise. There are many types of projects there like Fixed Price Projects, Hourly and Contests. One can get their job done by an Expert on either side of the globe.

There are options to bid on the project and submit your proposals. The person who is looking for an expert will evaluate your profile , proposal and skill and then after conversation you get rewarded for this project. After successfully completing the stages you will get mile stones created by the Employer.

But at the same time the competition is High and It’s tough to get recognised by the employer. Freelancer provides assessment of the skills of various levels.

You can try these exams or quizzes and after completing it by scoring the appropriate marks set by the Freelancer you will get a badge of the Level of the Skill.

And this badge will make an impact on employers that you have knowledge of a particular skill.


Passing an exam increases your chances to get awarded the project by your employer. In This Section You will get stuff that is really helpful to you in clearing the Freelancer PHP Level 1 Exam. We have listed almost the questions asked in Exam and Answers for the same.

The file handle argument in fread() allows you to specify ___________.

Answer: the number of bytes you wish to read


$count = $count + 8; can be written as:

Answer: $count += 8;


Which of the following is a special PHP variable that is used under HTTP Authentication?



XML is used for:

Answer: All of these

Data manipulation and storage

Display formatted data in a browser using style sheets.

transfer data between organizations

transfer data between software applications


Which kind of reference action allows you to have two variables referring to the same content?

Answer: Assign by reference.


____________ describes the structure of a class of XML documents, specifying how elements are related and allowed.

Answer: Document Type Definition


Which parameter of setcookie() indicates that the cookie should only be transmitted over a secure HTTPS connection from the client?

Answer: secure


Which of the following can be included in a phar file?

Answer: All of these

a manifest describing the contents

a signature for verifying integrity

a stub

the file contents


Which of the following will encrypt a password?

Answer: crypt($password);


Which of the following will connect to a data base using PEAR?

Answer: DB::connect(data_source_name);


Which of the following will return 1 if the Memcache session handler is available and 0 if not?



Which bz library function returns bzip2 encoded data after compressing a given string?

Answer: bzcompress()


Which function opens a memcached server persistent connection?

Answer: Memcache::pconnect


On the additional header that PHP allows you to include on an email you can add:

Answer: All of these




MIME version

X-mailer and version number


__________ is the same as setcookie() but the cookie value will not be automatically urlencoded when sent to the browser.

Answer: setrawcookie()


Which function enables automatic compression of large values?

Answer: Memcache::setCompressThreshold


Which of the following will send queries to a database using PEAR?

Answer: none of these







Which PHP library allows you to connect to and communicate with different types of servers using many different types of protocol?

Answer: cURL


Which configuration directive sets the size of data chunks for transfers?

Answer: memcache.chunk_size


What does PEAR stand for?

Answer: PHP Extension and Application Repository


Which of the following functions are used to encrypt passwords?

Answer: md5() and crypt()


Which cURL function sets an option on the given cURL session handle?

Answer: curl_setopt


Which of the following are examples of resource types in cURL?

Answer: cURL handle and a cURL multi handle


Which API treats XML as flow-through string data?

Answer: CAX


What does XML mean?

Answer: eXtensible Markup Language


singleton design pattern

Answer: Sometimes it’s important to have only one instance for a class. For example, in a system there should be only one window manager (or only a file system or only a print spooler). Usually singletons are used for centralized management of internal or external resources and they provide a global point of access to themselves.


PHP magic constant

Answer: __LINE__


When a small window pops up in front of the browser asking your username and a password, what kind of Authentication is being used?

Answer: HTTP


In session management cookies are usually not used for:

Answer: logging the user in for the first time


Which function returns the version of the server?

Answer: Memcache::getVersion


Which character must be set in the $mode argument for fopen($file, $mode) to open a file for reading and writing?

Answer: r+;


Which of the following will open the file “time.txt” as readable?

Answer: fopen(“time.txt”,”r”);


_____________ attempts to establish an FTP connection to a remote server by emulating an FTP client.

Answer: FTP ftp_connect()


Which of the following is the correct syntax to retrieve an object from the memcache module?

Answer: $result = $memcache->get(‘key’);


Which of these will perform integer rather than floating point division?

Answer: intval(x/y)


$count = $count * 3; can be written as:

Answer: $count *= 3;


What is the correct way to add 1 to the $counter variable?

Answer: $counter++;


Which operator appends the argument on the right side to the argument on the left side?

Answer: .=


With the ________ bitwise operator, the bits set in $a are not set, and the not set bits are then set.

Answer: ~


Which bitwise operator will set the bits that are set in either $a or $b.

Answer: ” | “


Which of the following allows you to set a user-defined exception handler function?

Answer: set_exception_handler


In an object method, which of the following is always a reference to the caller object?

Answer: $this


Which kind of reference is used by creating a local variable in a function and a variable in the calling scope referencing the same content?

Answer: Assign by reference.


Which of the following returns the remainder of $a divided by $b?

Answer: $a % $b


What PHP operator is used to access methods and properties of objects?

Answer: ” -> “


Which interface type allows you to chain methods of an object together?

Answer: Fluent Interfaces


Interfaces define a “contract” specifying that an object is capable of implementing a method ____________.

Answer: Specifying exactly how is to be done.


What is the correct way to create a function in PHP?

Answer: function yourFunction()


Which of the following will print “Hi ” followed a name argument passed to the function?

Answer: function sayHi ($name){ print “Hi $name”; }


Include files must have the file extension:

Answer: none of these


What is the term for using a class to create an object?

Answer: Instantiation


PHP constants:

Answer: All of these apply


Can be accessed anywhere in the script regardless of the scope.

Can be used as default argument values.

Cannot change during the execution of the script.

Follow the same rules as labels in PHP.


Which statement can replace several else Statements?

Answer: switch


To retrieve information from a form that is submitted using the “get” method, use ___________.

Answer: $_GET[];


Which POSIX function takes the following two string arguments and an optional third-array argument: A POSIX-style regular expression pattern, and the target string to be matched?

Answer: ereg()


Which PHP operator will attempt to execute its contents as a shell command?

Answer: (` `)


What function takes any number of numerical arguments and returns the largest of the arguments?

Answer: max()


To unregister a session variable STRING use:

Answer: session_unregister(STRING);


Which of the following is correct to select a database in MS SQL?

Answer: mssql_select_db(STRING)


Select the variable used to set the php.ini file to send emails containing the address of the default PHP mail sender.

Answer: sendmail_from


Which configuration directive is used to transparently failover to other servers on errors?

Answer: memcache.allow_failover


Which PHP function is identical to the C fwrite() function?

Answer: fputs()


Which function writes a string to a file?

Answer: file_put_contents


To denote strings in PHP, you can use both double quotes ” ” and which other characters?

Answer: single quotes ‘ ‘


What kind of elements can be contained in constants?

Answer: All of these







Which PHP operator type allows you to execute its contents as a shell command?

Answer: Execution operator


PHP variables start with the following symbol:

Answer: $


Which POSIX function takes a pattern, a target string, and an optional limit on the number of portions to split the string into.

Answer: split


What function raises the first argument to the power of the second argument, with decimal places to be specified by the scale factor?

Answer: bcpow


Instead of a single new line character some clients require which characters?

Answer: “\r\n”


Which function parses input from a file according to a format?

Answer: fscanf


Which file should be edited to set configuration directives?

Answer: php.ini


Which of the following is correct in PHP?

Answer: Zero is interpreted as false


Which parameter of setcookie() defines the amount of time for which a cookie is valid?

Answer: expire


Which control structure allows you to quickly traverse through an array?

Answer: foreach loops


Which types of code can be affected by namespaces?

Answer: Classes, functions and constants.


Although any valid PHP code can be contained within a namespace, only four types of code are affected by namespaces: classes, interfaces, functions and constants.


Which cURL function returns the last error number?

Answer: curl_errno


Which of the following is an invalid constant name?

Answer: 2DAY


Which PHP operator allows you to assign values to variables and arrays?

Answer: “=”


What is the term for breaking the binding between a variable name and variable content?

Answer: Unsetting references.


Which is the operator for the integer remainder from the division of two values?

Answer: %


Which predefined Memcache function turns on data compression?



Which compressed file type can be decompressed without specifying the extension?

Answer: zip


Which configuration directive, in conjunction with memcache.allow_failover, defines how many servers to try when setting and getting data?

Answer: memcache.max_failover_attempts


The correct way to create a numeric variable “v” that might have any real number is:

Answer: $v;


Which of the following databases are supported by PHP?

Answer: All of these



Oracle and Informix

PostgreSQL and Frontbase

mSQL and Interbase


Which of the following is the line to enable in the php.ini file for Windows in order to be able to use DBX?

Answer: extension=php_dbx.dll


Which of the following is the correct way to connect to a mySQL Server?

Answer: mysql_connect(SERVER, USER, PASSWORD);


Which of the following will return variables from a form sent by the HTTP POST method in PHP?

Answer: $_POST


Which version of PHP introduced object oriented programming?

Answer: PHP III


Which of the following will correctly create a constant “const”?

Answer: const const;


What variable is used by session cookies as a user ID?



Functions that represent a behavior of a class are called _________.

Answer: Methods


Which zip function retrieves the compressed size of a directory entry?

Answer: zip_entry_compressedsize


What does cURL stand for?

Answer: Client URL


Which function clears the cache of file status info?

Answer: clearstatcache


Which method defines HTTP Authentication using Apache Server?

Answer: .htaccess files


What is the most widely accepted meaning of the acronym “PHP” today?

Answer: PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor


_______________ defines a cookie to be sent along with the rest of the HTTP headers.

Answer: setcookie()


A special method to perform any activity required to instantiate an object is called a(n) __________.

Answer: Constructor


Which POSIX character matches zero or more instances of the previous regular expression?

Answer: *


Which POSIX character matches any character?

Answer: .


If an exception is not caught, a PHP Fatal Error will be issued with what message?

Answer: “Uncaught Exception …”


Which statement retrieves the value of a function after it is called?

Answer: return


Which “magic” constant implemented inside an include, returns the directory of the included file.

Answer: _DIR_


Which function returns a string containing a byte-stream representation of any value that can be stored in PHP?

Answer: serialize()


How do you write “Hello World 2010” in PHP?

Answer: echo “Hello World 2010”;


Which command returns the filename component of a path?

Answer: string basename ( string $path [, string $suffix ] )


Which file mode will read and write to the end of an existing file or create a new file?

Answer: “a+”


Which server verifies the name password and mail spool location?

Answer: SMTP Server


What does MTA stand for?

Answer: Mail Transfer Agent


The agent used to collect and access the mail spool is called:

Answer: Mail Transfer Agent – not sure


__________ is an extension that provides a way to put entire PHP applications into a single file called PHP Archive for easy distribution and installation.

Answer: phar


Which function is used to connect to a database using Authentication by SQL Database Query?

Answer: @mysql_connect(“localhost”,”databaseuser”,”password”)


Which function takes a single argument and returns the largest integer that is less or equal to that argument?

Answer: floor()


Which function takes a single argument and returns the smallest integer that is greater than or equal to that argument?

Answer: ceil()


What is the expression for returning the square root of 2?

Answer: sqrt(2)


Which Perl Compatible Regex function takes a regex pattern and an array and returns an array of the elements of the input array that matched the pattern?

Answer: preg_grep


Protected members are available to:

Answer: The class itself and the classes that inherit from it


Which of these variables has an illegal name?

Answer: $your-Var


A(n) _____________ is an ordered map that assigns values to keys:

Answer: array


What PHP type represents a series of characters?

Answer: string


Which of the following is NOT a correct way to specify a string?

Answer: alfanum syntax


Strings in PHP can be specified in four different ways: single quoted, double quoted, heredoc syntax and (since PHP 5.3.0) nowdoc syntax


Which of the following allows you to express any real number?

Answer: double


Which of the following is the correct way to create a reference to a global variable?

Answer: $var =& $GLOBALS[“var”];


Which of the following provides a means to access the same content on PHP variables by different names?

Answer: References


Which PHP operator is used to concatenate strings?

Answer: “.”


What PHP token that allows access to static, constant, and overridden properties or methods of a class?

Answer: ::


Which PHP operator type returns the result of string arguments?)

Answer: String operators


Which of these restrictions applies to namespace implementation?

Answer: Nested namespaces are prohibited.


What term applies to an identifier with a namespace separator that begins with a namespace separator, such as \Foo\Bar?

Answer: Fully qualified name.


Which of the following objects lets you create code which specifies which methods a class must implement, without specifying how the objects are handled?

Answer: Interfaces


Which Interface allows you to use a design pattern that is characteristically changed with the instantiation of objects?

Answer: Instantation Design Interface


Which POSIX character matches the beginning of a string only?

Answer: ^


Which of the following are two broad classes of regular expressions that PHP works with?

Answer: POSIX and PHP-compatible regex


Which statement allows you to end a loop?

Answer: break


This “magic” constant refers to the name of the current namespace and it is defined in compile-time



What is the name for instances of a class that contain all the internal data and state information need for the application to run

Answer: Objects


___________ allows a class to be defined as being a member of more than one category of classes

Answer: Polymorphism


The ability to define a class of one kind as being a subtype of a different kind of class is called:

Answer: Inheritance


Which function changes server parameters and status at runtime?

Answer: Memcache::setServerParams


Which function forces a write of all buffered output to the resource pointed to by the file handle?

Answer: fflush


Single-line comments in PHP use the following:

Answer: //


The ability of a class to protect access to its internal member variables is called:

Answer: encapsulation


You can use what function in order to check if a constant is set?

Answer: defined();


Which of these will perform integer rather than floating point division?

Answer: intval(x/y);


______________ is a mechanism for storing data in the remote browser and thus tracking or identifying return users.

Answer: Cookies


Using the Zip Archive Class, which of the following will include a file to a ZIP archive from a given path?

Answer: zipArchive::addFile


Which of the following is an example of predefined cURL constant?

Answer: All of these







Which of the following refers to a set of functions that allows you have access to multiple supported databases without writing your own wrapper functions?

Answer: PHP DBX


Which of the following is the correct syntax to retrieve an object from the memcache module?

Answer: $result = $memcache->get(‘key’);


_____________ attempts to establish an FTP connection to a remote server by emulating an FTP client.

Answer: FTP ftp_connect()


Which of the following will open the file “time.txt” as readable?

Answer: fopen(“time.txt”,”r”);


Which character must be set in the $mode argument for fopen($file, $mode) to open a file for reading and writing?

Answer: r+;


Which of the following is the correct way to implement a “for” control structure?

Answer: for($i=0; $i<10; $i++){ // do something }


Which of the following is the only keyword that can be written before the namespace at the top of the file?

Answer: declare


What is the correct way to access the property of a PHP object?

Answer: $obj->property


Select the convention sign used to indicate private variables and functions:

Answer: _ for $_name


Arrays can be sorted with which of the following functions?

Answer: arsort(), ksort() and uksort();


Private members are accessible to:

Answer: The class itself and the classes that inherit from it


Which function returns the square root of its argument, with number of decimal places set by the optional scale factor?

Answer: bcsqrt()


What 2 types of parsers are used in PHP?



What does MIME stand for?

Answer: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions


Which configuration directive defines a comma separated list of server urls to use for session storage?

Answer: session.save_path


Which function gets permissions for the given file?

Answer: fileperms


Which function checks whether a file or directory exists?

Answer: file_exists


PHP constants:

Answer: All of these


Do not have a dollar sign ($) before them.

May be defined and accessed anywhere without regard to variable scoping rules

May not be redefined or undefined once they have been set.

May only evaluate to scalar values.


Which PHP operator type allows evaluation and manipulation of specific bits within an integer?

Answer: Bitwise operators


At compile time static values are bound with

Answer: a name


Which Perl Compatible Regex character will cause any special character to be treated as a simple matching character?

Answer: \


Session files should not be stored on a directory viewable from the Web server because:

Answer: Malicious users may access other users’ login details


Which API reads in an XML file and creates a “walkable” object tree in memory, so it can be used in large documents?

Answer: DOM


What APIs are used for handling XML documents?

Answer: Document Object Model (DOM) and Simple API for XML (SAX)


________________ tests for the end of file on a file pointer.

Answer: feof()


Instantiate an object Demo: require_once(‘class.Demo.php’);

Answer: $objDemo = new Demo();


Which of the following is correct for adding a comment in a PHP script?

Answer: /* comment */


Which function returns (and caches) file permissions level?

Answer: fileperms(file)


Which PHP function sets file modification time or creates a file if it does not exist?

Answer: touch(file, [time])


Which of these PHP file open modes are valid for the specified conditions?

Answer: All of these


The ____________ function can be used in combination with the PHP header() construct to assemble and send file downloads.

Answer: fpassthru


Which function returns (and caches) the time a file was last accessed?

Answer: fileatime(file)


How do you modify the php.ini file to have sessions work correctly on windows?

Answer: change session.save_path = /tmp to session.save_path=C:/temp


Which function gets statistics from all servers in a pool?

Answer: Memcache::getExtendedStats


Which of the following functions returns a Boolean value after attempting to send a message?

Answer: mail()


Which of the following is the correct way to connect to a MySQL database?

Answer: mysql_connect(“localhost”);


Which files should be used to install cURL in an include directory?

Answer: easy.h and curl.h files


Which function returns the largest number that may be returned by rand()?

Answer: getrandmax()


Which Perl Compatible Regex function inserts escape characters into strings that are intended for use as regex patterns.

Answer: preg_quote


Which of the following shifts the bits of $a $b steps to the left?

Answer: $a << $b


What PHP function returns the arctangent in radians of a numerical argument?

Answer: atan()


Which function is used to start tracking a user?

Answer: session_start();


What statement will delete session files?

Answer: session_destroy();


How are sessions tracked on PHP

Answer: With code rewriting using the PHP Session reference variable


Which statement will skip the rest of the current loop iteration and continue execution at the beginning of next iteration.

Answer: continue


Which function returns (and caches) the owner ID number?

Answer: fileowner()


Which of the following is the correct way to implement a do-while loop?

Answer: $j=0; do { print “$j”; } while ($j > 0);


Which of the following is correct to show a message for an exception?

Answer: throw new Exception (“Invalid data”);


What term refers to the ability to shorten Extra_Long_Names improving readability of source code?

Answer: Aliasing


Which operator performs the same function as x=x%y?

Answer: %=


The control error operator is:

Answer: @


Which of the following is the not equal operator?

Answer: !=


Which Perl Compatible Regex function takes a regex pattern as first argument, a string to match against as second argument, and an optional array variable for returned matches?

Answer: preg_grep


What are the levels of visibility possible for a variable or method?

Answer: Public, Private and Protected


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Codeigniter Download

Codeigniter 4 has been released and can be used for application development. The new version of code igniter is supported with PHP 7.2 or higher. So Latest release of Code Igniter has all those features that other powerful MVCs framework have.

Code igniter 4 Can be downloaded easily from Code igniter Official Website. Below is the link

Download Codeigniter here :

Read More about Code igniter:

How to start with Codeigniter

What is New In CodeIgniter 4.x?


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WordPress After Login Redirect Hook

Want to enhance your WordPress functionality using custom coding, then you are at the right place.  In this article, you are going to learn how to redirect on a custom page after a successful login in WordPress. When you are working on Woocommerce or any other type of application based on WordPress and you need to redirect your logged in user other than the default page or My Account page then you need to add few lines of codes in your functions.php.  Although there are many plugins available for this simple work you can create your own plugin using this successful login redirect code. WordPress is known for its simplicity and flexibility. We will use the feature of filters and hooks to extend the functionality.

Use hook wp_login()

There is wp_login() and we can use this function as a hook to create our own function and to redirect after login.

do_action( 'wp_login', string $user_login, WP_User $user )


Now we can write our own function to modify the default redirection. Suppose we have to redirect on the home page rather than the default page after successful login in WordPress. Then the code in the following example is sufficient :

function my_login_redirect() {
add_action( 'wp_login', 'my_login_redirect', 10, 3 );


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Why Laravel Is The Top PHP Framework In 2020-2021

Numerous PHP-frameworks are accessible to use as open-source and free. Be that as it may, at whatever point we talk about Laravel, then the issue is unique. Try not to stress. It is likewise open-source and free PHP structure; however, it came in presence as the top and a propelled contender to the CodeIgniter system.

It is furnished with numerous highlights; for example, worked in help for client authentication and authorization. CodeIgniter missed these highlights. That is the reason the web advancement process utilizing CodeIgniter was very hard.

The expansion of the above highlights expanded the ubiquity and distinction of the Laravel structure. Numerous Laravel development companies engineers as their significant component for creating web applications and believe it is the best and most prestigious PHP structure.

Engineers likewise use Bootstrap Laravel formats while they grow large and complex applications. Numerous different highlights make Laravel the best PHP system in 2020.

We take an itemized conversation on the highlights and rule of the Laravel PHP system in web advancement:

Application structure

About the application structure in Laravel, it accompanies a default application structure. Its application structure is straightforward to use, thus giving high convenience to begin little or huge applications. With this component, designers can modify the application according to the proprietor requests.

Multiple File Storage System

Laravel is in build with various storage systems like cloud, Amazon, and other Exchanging between these profoundly included, and in vogue distributed storage systems will be a not too bad and simple errand because the API utilized for every one of these systems is the equivalent.

A standout amongst other things like this will be the designer will be permitted to use all these three distributed storage systems just in a single application. It will allow engineers to rapidly and effectively serve these files from various areas with no issue.

MVC Architecture Support

Concentrate on straightforwardness is an indispensable factor between business rationale and introduction being developed. Laravel supports MVC. MVC is named as Model View Controller. This design has a full scope of inherent capacities. MVC empowers engineers to support the presentation and offers reasonable documentation advantage.

To get a full favorable position of the Laravel structure, it is recommended to interface with experts having long stretches of understanding and aptitude as they are the individuals offering the total capacity to your web improvement given by Laravel.

Article Oriented Libraries

Laravel accompanies the enormous assortment of Object-Oriented Libraries fused with numerous pre-introduced and worked in libraries like Authentication library. CodeIgniter, Symphony, and other well-known PHP frameworks don’t offer these sorts of Object-Oriented Libraries.

Laravel Authentication Library is outfitted with a wide scope of cutting edge highlights. A portion of different highlights incorporates checking dynamic clients, cross-site insurance and REquest Forgery encryption, Bcrypt hashing, and secret key reset.


Laravel offers restriction benefits that are useful to the engineers in a way to recover strings of a few dialects. Along these lines, the web application will bolster different dialects without any problem. It is beyond the realm of imagination with various frameworks, so it makes Laravel a worldwide marvel.


Pagination is a run of the mill task in web advancement; however, Laravel makes it simpler at the initial step. It causes designers to make clever connections for any site created on the HTML and current page. Moreover, the connections made by designers utilizing pagination in Laravel will perfect with Bootstrap CSS structure.

Sharp edge Template Engine

One of the intriguing realities about Laravel is that it gives an in-manufactured layout motor named Blade. The powerful and smooth Blade templating motor necessarily accompanied Laravel 5.1. Laravel accompanies a first anyway still strong templating engine which isn’t accessible in other PHP frameworks.

It helps engineers from using the understandable code in the views. Also, the cutting edge views then effortlessly take care of into simple PHP code and are before revamped they are stored.

In a couple of conditions, altering or erasing an announcement appears to be an extreme errand while dealing with unpredictable and enormous undertakings. Be that as it may, Blade in Laravel encourages designers to expel or change the announcement with no issue handily.

Steering System

Laravel encourages designers to use a directing framework that is exceptionally helpful and straightforward. They require building up an index for the URI and afterward create and execute appropriate connects to the named courses.

The primary advantage is that while making the code, it puts the URIs depended on connections to the particular links and paths and updates them if the course change.


There are just a couple of frameworks that realize that making authentication is straightforward and quick. Like this, everything has been designed and included as of now for the web engineers for the most part.

The arrangement files comprise every single extraordinary archive that is basic for dealing with the elements of authentication services.

Programming Task Management and arrangement

In each web advancement, the process task the executives and setup is a fundamental factor that ought to be considered by each engineer top to bottom. It is likewise a necessary errand to be done on schedule. It may be sending some other errands or an email, clearing the database, overseeing undertakings efficiently consistently assume a significant job.

Try not to stress the platitude possibly commonplace, yet usage isn’t as Laravel is here with an order scheduler.

While utilizing the order scheduler, just the code passage will be included your server. Corn calls this scheduler over and over.

After the execution of the order, Laravel assesses the booked errand and run all the pending assignments. As such, Laravel offers ease in planning and dealing with the undertakings.


It is challenging to state if any web application is secure and ensured. With the Laravel PHP structure can give the top security to web applications as the passwords will never get spared inside the system as the understandable content. This is the principle reason Laravel uses the hashed secret phrase for security.

Laravel likewise gives the best counteraction to your web applications from infusion assaults. It utilizes SQL articulations to decrease the opportunity for genuine dangers.

Laravel offers numerous security features that include ensuring courses, encryption, HTTP essential authentication, and so forth.

Programmed Package Discovery

Programmed Package Discovery in Laravel discovers which bundles are wanted by clients to introduce. There is no compelling reason to set up any examination.

It is anything but challenging to impair this element, and engineers can do it with no issue. This component is likewise the purpose behind the ubiquity of Laravel.

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React JS Interview Questions

React is a JavaScript library for building user interfaces. It is based on ES6 Script Extension. ES6 is ECMA Script 2015. React provides seamless manipulation and rendering of DOM objects.

We also consider it as a Popular JavaScript framework based on Redux Architecture. React is developed and maintained by Facebook Inc. React was first created by Jordan Walke, a software engineer working for Facebook. Facebook is using React since 2011 and Instagram since 2012.

So it is a necessary skill to have in your stack. You will be considered if you are an expert in React JS.  Here are some important React Js Interview Questions and Answers useful for Javascript Interview.

What is React?

React is an open-source front-end JavaScript library that is used for building user interfaces especially for single-page applications. It is used for handling the view layer for web and mobile apps. React was created by Jordan Walke, a software engineer working for Facebook. React was first deployed on Facebook’s News Feed in 2011 and on Instagram in 2012.  Read more about – What is React JS?

What are the major features of React?

The major features of React are:

  • It uses VirtualDOM instead of RealDOM considering that RealDOM manipulations are expensive.
  • Supports server-side rendering.
  • Follows Unidirectional data flow or data binding.
  • Uses reusable/composable UI components to develop the view.

What is JSX?

JSX is a XML-like syntax extension to ECMAScript (the acronym stands for JavaScript XML). Basically it just provides syntactic sugar for the React.createElement() function, giving us expressiveness of JavaScript along with HTML like template syntax.

In the example below the text inside the <h1> tag returns as JavaScript function to the render function.

class App extends React.Component {

  render() {



        <h1>{'Welcome to React world!'}</h1>





What are Pure Components?

React.PureComponent is exactly the same as React. Component except that it handles the shouldComponentUpdate() method for you. When props or state changes, PureComponent will do a shallow comparison on both props and state. A component, on the other hand, won’t compare current props and state to next out of the box. Thus, the component will re-render by default whenever shouldComponentUpdate is called.

What is the difference between state and props?

Both props and state are plain JavaScript objects. While both of them hold information that influences the output of render, they are different in their functionality with respect to the component. Props get passed to the component similar to function parameters whereas the state is managed within the component similar to variables declared within a function.

What is the use of refs?

The ref is used to return a reference to the element. They should be avoided in most cases, however, they can be useful when you need direct access to the DOM element or an instance of a component.

What is Virtual DOM?

The Virtual DOM (VDOM) is an in-memory representation of Real DOM. The representation of a UI is kept in memory and synced with the “real” DOM. It’s a step that happens between the render function being called and the displaying of elements on the screen. This entire process is called reconciliation.

What is the difference between Shadow DOM and Virtual DOM?

The Shadow DOM is a browser technology designed primarily for scoping variables and CSS in web components. The Virtual DOM is a concept implemented by libraries in JavaScript on top of browser APIs.

What is React Fiber?

Fiber is the new reconciliation engine or reimplementation of the core algorithm in React v16. The goal of React Fiber is to increase its suitability for areas like animation, layout, gestures, ability to pause, abort, or reuse work and assign priority to different types of updates; and new concurrency primitives.

What is the main goal of React Fiber?

The goal of React Fiber is to increase its suitability for areas like animation, layout, and gestures. Its headline feature is incremental rendering: the ability to split rendering work into chunks and spread it out over multiple frames.

What are the controlled components?

A component that controls the input elements within the forms on subsequent user input is called Controlled Component, i.e, every state mutation will have an associated handler function.

For example, to write all the names in uppercase letters, we use handleChange as below,

handleChange(event) {



How to create props proxy for the HOC component?

You can add/edit props passed to the component using props proxy pattern like this:

function HOC(WrappedComponent) {

  return class Test extends Component {

    render() {

      const newProps = {

        title: 'New Header',

        footer: false,

        showFeatureX: false,

        showFeatureY: true


      return <WrappedComponent {...this.props} {...newProps} />




What is the context?

Context provides a way to pass data through the component tree without having to pass props down manually at every level. For example, authenticated user, locale preference, UI theme need to be accessed in the application by many components.

const {Provider, Consumer} = React.createContext(defaultValue)

What is a child prop?

Children are a prop (this.prop.children) that allow you to pass components as data to other components, just like any other prop you use. Component tree put between component’s opening and closing tag will be passed to that component as children prop.

There are a number of methods available in the React API to work with this prop. These include, React.Children.forEach, React.Children.count, React.Children.only, React.Children.toArray. A simple usage of children prop looks as below,


const MyDiv = React.createClass({

  render: function() {

    return <div>{this.props.children}</div>










What is reconciliation?

When a component’s props or state change, React decides whether an actual DOM update is necessary by comparing the newly returned element with the previously rendered one. When they are not equal, React will update the DOM. This process is called reconciliation.

How to set a state with a dynamic key name?

If you are using ES6 or the Babel transpiler to transform your JSX code then you can accomplish this with computed property names.


handleInputChange(event) {

  this.setState({ []: })



Why does React use className over class attribute?

class is a keyword in JavaScript, and JSX is an extension of JavaScript. That’s the principal reason why React uses className instead of class. Pass a string as the className prop.

render() {

  return <span className={'menu navigation-menu'}>{'Menu'}</span>


Why are fragments better than container divs?

  1. Fragments are a bit faster and use less memory by not creating an extra DOM node. This only has a real benefit on very large and deep trees.
  2. Some CSS mechanisms like Flexbox and CSS Grid have special parent-child relationships, and adding divs in the middle makes it hard to keep the desired layout.
  3. The DOM Inspector is less cluttered.


What are stateless components?

If the behavior is independent of its state then it can be a stateless component. You can use either a function or a class for creating stateless components. But unless you need to use a lifecycle hook in your components, you should go for function components. There are a lot of benefits if you decide to use function components here; they are easy to write, understand, and test, a little faster, and you can avoid this keyword altogether.

What are the advantages of React?

  1. Increases the application’s performance with Virtual DOM.
  2. JSX makes code easy to read and write.
  3. It renders both on client and server-side (SSR).
  4. Easy to integrate with frameworks (Angular, Backbone) since it is only a view library.
  5. Easy to write unit and integration tests with tools such as Jest.


What are the limitations of React?

  1. React is just a view library, not a full framework.
  2. There is a learning curve for beginners who are new to web development.
  3. Integrating React into a traditional MVC framework requires some additional configuration.
  4. The code complexity increases with inline templating and JSX.
  5. Too many smaller components leading to over-engineering or boilerplate.

How are error boundaries handled in React v15?

React v15 provided very basic support for error boundaries using the unstable_handleError method. It has been renamed to componentDidCatch in React v16.

What is the purpose of the render method of react-dom?

This method is used to render a React element into the DOM in the supplied container and return a reference to the component. If the React element was previously rendered into a container, it will perform an update on it and only mutate the DOM as necessary to reflect the latest changes.

ReactDOM.render(element, container[, callback])


If the optional callback is provided, it will be executed after the component is rendered or updated.

How to use innerHTML to React?

The dangerouslySetInnerHTML attribute is React’s replacement for using innerHTML in the browser DOM. Just like innerHTML, it is risky to use this attribute considering cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks. You just need to pass an __html object as key and HTML text as value.

In this example MyComponent uses dangerouslySetInnerHTML attribute for setting HTML markup:

function createMarkup() {

  return { __html: 'First &middot; Second' }


function MyComponent() {

  return <div dangerouslySetInnerHTML={createMarkup()} />


How events are different in React?

Handling events in React elements has some syntactic differences:

  1. React event handlers are named using camelCase, rather than lowercase.
  2. With JSX you pass a function as the event handler, rather than a string.

What will happen if you use setState() in the constructor?

When you use setState(), then apart from assigning to the object state React also re-renders the component and all its children. You would get an error like this: Can only update a mounted or mounting component. So we What will happen if you use setState() in the constructor? What will happen if you use setState() in the constructor? need to use this.state to initialize variables inside the constructor.

How do you conditionally render components?

In some cases, you want to render different components depending on some state. JSX does not render false or undefined, so you can use conditional short-circuiting to render a given part of your component only if a certain condition is true.

const MyComponent = ({ name, address }) => (



    {address &&





If you need an if-else condition then use a ternary operator.

const MyComponent = ({ name, address }) => (




      ? <p>{address}</p>

      : <p>{'Address is not available'}</p>





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What is React JS?

React is a JavaScript library for building user interfaces. It is based on ES6 Script Extension. ES6 is ECMA Script 2015. React provides seamless manipulation and rendering of DOM objects.

We also consider it as a Popular JavaScript framework based on Redux Architecture. React is developed and maintained by Facebook Inc. React was first created by Jordan Walke, a software engineer working for Facebook. Facebook is using React since 2011 and Instagram since 2012.

It can be used to render UI for any type of device like Mobile, Desktop and tablets. React use JSX syntax to create dynamic HTML DOM objects. In JSX HTML is part of the Javascript code. JSX stands for JavaScript XML.JSX is an XML/HTML like extension to JavaScript.

According to Official

React is a declarative, efficient, and flexible JavaScript library for building user interfaces. It lets you compose complex UIs from small and isolated pieces of code called “components”.

Reactjs Example:

A Simple Example of JSX:

const MyElement = <h1>Hello World!</h1>;

Features of React JS:

There is a number of features that React is Having. Let have a look at them:

Declarative views make your code more predictable and easier to debug. It renders and manipulates just the particular and right component when some change in data occurs and not the whole HTML page.

Break the whole Applications in a simple component. Each component is responsible for some particular rendering. This makes easy to maintain and make it modular. Simple component are used to make a complex and enrich UI. Since Component is written using ES6, we can separate state from DOM.

Example of Component :

class HelloWorld extends React.Component {
  render() {
		return (
			Hello {}
	<HelloWorld name="World" />,

#3.State Less and State Full Components:
React JS allow us to compose stateless and stateful component. Where we can decide to separate our DOM from the state. A simple stateless component can be used in the application to render the data from different states.

#4. Flexible
When it comes to flexibility, React gives freedom to the composer to create components, modules, and logic to make an application to work efficiently.

Plugins and components make it Extensible to any level. Users can create any number of Components and plugins as per convenient. It never restricts. We can use external plugins also.

#6.React Native
React has developed native libraries that are compatible with Android, iOS and UDP applications. So we can develop and deploy native applications for these Operating Systems.

#7.One-way data Flow:
In a React Js application, the components are not allowed to modify any property but can pass a call back function to do so. We can pass a set of values to the component to render the HTML with desired properties.

#8. Fast and Seamless Experience
All the above features make React Seamless and Fast. React provide a fast rendering of component because it renders only the right component where data has been changed.

Why We Should Choose React JS?

  • It is simple as an ES6 script.
  • Easy to learn and a huge community over the internet.
  • It has native libraries, so a single technology can work for mobile, and web applications.
  • It has one-way data binding.
  • It contains self- contained components.
  • Exceptional performance.
  • High flexibility, maintainability, and testability.

You have got a clear picture of React JS. What is React JS and what are the main features that let developers move towards it.

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Code Igniter 4 Release Date

CodeIgniter is an open-source software rapid development web framework, for use in building dynamic web sites with PHP.

Codeigniter is a lightweight MVC architecture based PHP framework.

This is popular for its performance and zero configuration. Codeigniter has beautiful documentation. Since CI is the most flexible PHP MVC framework, people love to work on this.

CodeIgniter is loosely based on the popular model–view–controller (MVC) development pattern. While controller classes are a necessary part of development under CodeIgniter, models and views are optional.

CodeIgniter can be also modified to use the Hierarchical Model View Controller (HMVC) which allows the developers to maintain modular grouping of Controller, Models and View arranged in a sub-directory format.

Till now the biggest release of CodeIgniter is Codeigniter 4.0 or CI 4.0. A final release for the rewritten CodeIgniter 4.0 is live.

The first public version of CodeIgniter was released by EllisLab on February 28, 2006.

Developers all over the world were waiting for its release and on 24 Feb 2020, It was released.

Waiting time is over now the alpha is released by Code Igniter officials finally, last month.

The first stable version of CI 4 is CodeIgniter 4.0.0.

Key Features of Code Igniter 4.x:

  • High Performance MVC framework
  • Minimal Configuration as the earlier versions
  • HMVC Structure
  • Based on PHP 7.2 and ahead
  • An MVC framework with a small footprint
  • Highly secured and inbuilt CSRF protection for HTTP requests

Server Requirements for Code Igniter 4.x

PHP version 7.2 or higher is required, with the following extensions installed:

  • intl
  • libcurl if you plan to use the HTTP\CURLRequest library

Additionally, make sure that the following extensions are enabled in your PHP:

  • json (enabled by default – don’t turn it off)
  • xml (enabled by default – don’t turn it off)
  • mbstring
  • mysqlnd
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PHP Send Emails

In this article, you will find the answer to the question “How to use PHP mail() function and how to send emails using PHP?

The mail() Function in PHP

Email is an important part of communication and frequently used by web applications to notify users about important events and actions.

When we register with some application we get an instant notification as Welcome Email.

Almost every website has a contact us page and there is a form with some fields.

Users use this form to communicate with customer care or for any inquiry or to get any Quotations.

We can use the PHP built-in mail() function for sending email messages to many recipients using PHP application.

We can send Plain text messages or HTML rich text messages with styled and multicolor design. In PHP mail() function is used as following:

mail(to, subject, message, headers, parameters);

The PHP mail() function has the following parameters:

Mandatory Parameters:
to: This email address of the recipient.
subject: Subject of the email to be sent.
message: This is the message body and main content of the email.

Optional Parameters:
headers: This is used to add headers such as “From”, “Cc”, “Bcc”.
parameters: This is used to add additional parameters.

Simple Mail Transmission Protocol (SMTP) Configuration:

PHP mailer uses the Simple Mail Transmission Protocol (SMTP) to send mail.
The SMTP settings would have already been configured.
The SMTP mail settings can be configured from “php.ini” file in the PHP installation folder.

Sending Plain Text Emails using mail() Function with Example:

We can send simple text messages using PHP mail() function. An example is given below:

Sending HTML Emails using mail() Function with Example:

We can send rich text styled HTML messages using PHP mail() function. An example is given below:

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PHP Full Form

What is the Full Form of PHP?

PHP means Hypertext Preprocessor.

At the starting PHP was Personal Home Page, but later it is amended and popular as Hypertext Preprocessor.
As a server-side scripting language PHP can be easily embedded into HTML pages. PHP has a rich library and now it is improved as a full-fledged programming language. The latest stable version of PHP is PHP 7.2.

You can read more about New Features in PHP 7.2 here.

PHP is useful for small scale to many complex solutions as there is a number of frameworks, SMSs, and ECommerce are available.

Salient Features of PHP are as follows:

  • Server-side scripting language
  • Lightweight Programming language
  • Open-source
  • Supported by all the platforms
  • Written in C, so performance is good
  • Object-Oriented Programming Language
  • Supports many RDBMS like MySQL, PostgreSQL,Oracle,Sybase,Solid and NoSQL like MongoDB.
  • PHP provides a multilayer structure to enable security in System.


PHP along with MySQL is a beautiful combination of server-side scripting language and Open Source RDBMS. MySQL is largely used SQL based RDBMS. PHP has a library that supports MySQL functionality to call from PHP code. We can retrieve data, insert data. My SQL also supports Transaction in Database.

LAMP Server

LAMP is for Linux Apache MySQL and PHP. This is a combination of all the server needs and Database need to run a PHP application on Linux System. We can install LAMP on our Linux machine as a combination of all these four technologies.

WAMP Server

Just like LAMP, we have WAMP for Windows machine. WAMP means Windows, Apache, MySQL, and PHP. This combination provides us the accessibility and environment to run PHP and MySQL based application in a Windows machine.

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PHP Code Online

PHP is a server-side scripting language used by millions of users worldwide. Full-Form of PHP is HyperText PreProgramming. The secret behind the popularity of PHP is simplicity and being Open Source. PHP has the biggest community over the world to support and share.

PHP has numerous Frameworks and CMS along with eCommerce that make it considerable. Developers need to write and debug some piece of code regularly and without saving them in a file and then run by the server in a local machine or on the server.

There are many such places available where we can run our chunk of PHP Code or a complete PHP Program and without saving it in any file.

These websites provide online PHP editor to write code and to execute PHP Code online. These are the Online Compiler and Interpreter providers helping the coders.

You just need to type your code and click on the run button without any mess and you will get the output of the program.

There are numbers of Online PHP editor where we can run or PHP Code and PHP Program:

Write Php Online

This is the best place where you can use PHP editor and can run your PHP code and PHP Program Online. You will find a very simple interface and a white background code editor to write PHP Code. You don’t need to save your PHP Program. There is a run button just below the PHP Editor once you will finish your PHP Code just click run and you will have your output. It is a very quick interpreter and loved by almost the PHP Developers.


Online PHP IDE

Joodle is the IDE provider. It provides the API to embedded IDE for almost the programming languages in any HTML page. You can use its interface to write PHP Code and get instant output. This PHP Editor is featured with Full Screen Editing Mode, User Input Console, Memory and Time analytics of the program.


Geeks For Geeks IDE

This is one where you can save your code for a longer time. This saves your content in your storage or in the browser. Whenever you will be back you will find your last PHP programs. This PHP Editor Provides tabs for many other programming languages you can just click and switch between the languages. GFG IDE provides two modes of the editor – Dark Mode or Night Mode and Light Mode.


This is a separate subdomain of Geeks Fo Geeks dedicated to IDEs for different languages.

PHP Tester

PHP Tester is a dedicated IDE for PHP and lets you write PHP Code and Run PHP code online. This provides you the facility to test your PHP code and get instant Result Online. You can also switch between the versions of PHP in this PHP Editor. You can easily check where a code is compatible with different types of PHP versions or not.


Interview Sort out

Interview Sortout also provides you a PHP Editor and Interpreter powered by Joodle. We have used a dark PHP Editor theme, that is loved by almost the programmers. You can run your PHP programs here without any server and without saving it to any file. This tool provides you with highlighted syntax and output with time and memory usage.


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Email Validation in Javascript

Email ID is a very important part of a user account. When an application invites the user to create accounts or allow users to subscribe to a newsletter, they ask for an email ID. Email ID is the initial medium of formal communication, so this is mandatory that the email is received should be in a valid format.

Here we are going to explain how to do Email Validation in JavaScript?

An Email is a string with a very simple structure. There are two parts :

  1. unique_id
  2. Domain Name

These two parts are separated by @. 

Suppose is an email where the first part interviewsortout is Unique User ID at the domain.

The length of the unique_id part may be up to 64 characters long and domain name may be up to 253 characters.

The first part of an email may have the following characters :

  • May contain Alphabets either in upper case or in lower case.
  • Any Digits 
  • Special character except @  
  • a dot(.) can not be the first and last character of uique_id

The second part is the domain name. So we can have .com, .in, .info, .net, .au etc type of domain. 

Have a look at some valid email addresses:



Now Have a look on Invalid Email Address : 

  • @not present : []
  • Top Level Domain can not be started with dot ( . ) : [ ]
  • [ No character before @ ]
  •  invalid top level domain   [exampleuser123@gmail.b]
  • an email can not start with “.” [ ]
  • double dots are not allowed []


To do email validation in javascript we will use Regular Expression to match that the given email address matches the criteria of a valid domain.


Regular Expression for email validation in JavaScript:




A complete Solution of Email Validation in Javascript :

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Joomla Interview Questions

Joomla Interview Questions for beginners and professionals with a list of top frequently asked Joomla interview questions and answers. This special piece of content is designed for people who are looking for a job as a Joomla developer.

This will be helpful to clear Joomla Interview. Here is the list of basic and conceptual Joomla Interview Questions and Answers:

What is Joomla?
Joomla is an open-source Content Management System (CMS), it allows users to develop online applications, e-commerce, blog sites, and websites. Joomla is built on a model view controller (MVC) architecture.

What is the position in Joomla?
Joomla site template divides the page into a various number of positions like nav, header, footer, top, bottom, module, etc.  This is nothing but a position. You can create as many positions in a template as you want, there is no restriction for it.

Explain what Joomla Modules are?
Modules are small content items that can be displayed anywhere in websites by assigning positions in the template. We can add multiple modules on a page at different positions.

What are the components in Joomla?
Components are responsible for the main content part in a template that makes changes on every click of the menu and displays the main functionality of the site. These are the core elements of Joomla!’s functionality. They include Content, Banners, Contact, News Feeds, Polls and Web Links.

By default what is the prefix Joomla has?
Joomla has a prefix like jos_, but during installation, you can set it according to you by default it generates a random prefix.

In Joomla CMS what is the file where database settings are stored?
Database settings are stored in the root directory under configuration.php.

How many files are required to build a module in Joomla?
Two files are required to build a fundamental module in Joomla:

  1. Mod_module_name.php
  2. mod_module_name.xml


What are the advantages of using Joomla?
Main advantages of using Joomla can be listed as:

  1. Joomla is open-source and free to use.
  2. It provides a lot of free components that are available in
  3. It has inbuilt permission and user role.
  4. One-click update.
  5. Provide simple, elegant and user-friendly templates free to use.
  6. Secure and user-friendly Interface for CMS.
  7. It can be used for eCommerce.
  8. Joomla generates SEO friendly URLs.
  9. Joomla is an MVC framework as well as CMS.


What are the limitations of Joomla?

  • Provide limited options
  • Plugin compatibility may cause an issue.
  • Its websites are heavy
  • Limited server resources and efficiency


Is Joomla a Blogging tool only?
Joomla can be used as a blog, but it is more powerful and rich in features compared to full blog systems like WordPress. Joomla should be preferred when your requirements are more than just blogging

By default how many tables Joomla have?
A fresh installation of Joomla can have 78 tables.

How many Joomla tables are related to users?
Table related to users in Joomla are :

  1. Jos_users
  2. Jos_usergroups
  3. jos_user_usergroup_map


How can you make a menu link that is not clickable?
You can use a link type separator/placeholder to create a menu link that is not clickable 

(doesn’t connect to anything or not to assign any component to it).

What meta description in Joomla Menu Manager?
Meta Description is basically used for SEO Purpose. It is a short description of the content and optional paragraph which is displayed in the results of search engines.

Name the editor used by Joomla content editor?
Joomla content editor uses TinyMCE Editor.

What Is The Default Super Administrator Account For Joomla Called?

What is Mambot in Joomla?
A Mambot is a small, task-oriented function, mini-program or plugin. It is used to modify content before display, extend site search, add core functionality, etc. Mambots are renamed plugins in Joomla 1.5.

What is Joomla Plugins?
Plugins are a kind of Joomla extension in Joomla. A Plugin is very flexible and powerful for extending the framework functionality. It contains a bit of code that is used to execute the particular display output of a component or module when the page is built. The plugin functions which are associated with the event are executed in a sequence when a particular event occurs.

How To Link Inside Content And Another Content Item?
Get the URL for the particular page you want to link this to. Create a link using a specific editor or with HTML, if you have no WYSIWYG.

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